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Chapter 1

Speech Language Pathology - Chapter 1 and 3.doc

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Ron Babin

Speech Language Pathology _ Chapter 1 & 3 : Introduction & Respiration  we are verbal creatures  we are naturally curious about speech and language  speech is highly personal: reveals who we are and who we would like to be  speech science – study of how speech is produced, how it is transformed into an acoustic signal and what it is in this acoustic signal that listeners use to decode a verbal msg - one major concern of speech science is measuring speech via both acoustic measures and psychological measures - another concern of speech science is how the normal speech production process breaks down in various speech and lang disorders  4 basic processes of speech that are classic to SLP : respiration, phonation, articulation and resonance Respiration  respiration is necessary to sustain life - provides oxy required by all living tissues  brain is one of the human organs whose supply of oxy is most critical – brain can only be deprived of oxy for no more than a few min before permanent damage occurs The Nature of Breathing  respiration main role: supply oxy to body  resp is also required to produce speech  resp serves a life sustaining function and a speech prod function  breathing for speech is diff than normal quiet breathing - difference in the inspiration to expiration ratio between quoet and speech breathing: quiet braining a person spends just equal time inhaling and exhaling vs in speech a person spends more time exhaling than inhaling -> bc typically only produce speech on exhaled breathe , speakers tend to spend 10 % of a breath cycle inhaling and 90% exhaling - speech is more effortful than quiet breathing:even though person spends less time inhaling for speech than quiet resp, a greater volume of air is taken in  diff between quiet and speech breathing prove 2 points - speech processes are built on more basic life sustaining functions like breathing - adaptions are made in such functions to accommodate speech -... diff imp bc these two diff functions of breathing may be controlled by diff neuro structures Respiration and Types of Sentences  speakers adjust their breathing to meet the requirements of the sentence they are about to produce - ex speakers take greater volume of air when they have a longer sentence to produce - adjust intake to accommodate sentences that have more sounds requiring greater airflow , ex /h/ sound, or more stress and emphasis on particular syllables  Lieberman hypothesized that a single sentence is usually spoken in a single breath group (characterized by a relatively steady fundamental freq throughout the sentence with a fall off in freq at a sentence's terminal portion - freq pattern can be associated with gradual decrease in air pressure below the vocal folds to allow exhalation and additional loss of subglottal pressure as one ends an utterance and forces the remaining air from the lungs  rising intonations contours = questions - produce rises in fund freq at send of sentence – when air from lungs is running out – is somewhat hard  ways to increase pitch of voice: - increase the flow of air from the lungs – if use too much air,you may not be able to achieve pitch rise at end - produce question versions of question statement pairs at faster rates than statement versions – do this in order to preserve the air that could help produce the rise in intonation at end of sentence  end of sentence = have lowest reserve of air left in lungs Breathing for Speech  most imp differences in the breathing that occurs for speech, compared to quiet, take place in muscle activity  muscle activity of inspiration and expiration in quiet breathing - to inhale, body makes use of a property of physics where areas with diff amounts of air pressure tend toward a balance - air particles in an area of high air pressure will always try to move to an area of lower air pressure to even things out Inspiration  inhale = air pressure within the lungs (sub glottal air pressure) is low compared to outside the lungs (atmospheric air pressure and this allows air to rush in from atmosphere  physiological conditions must be met - vocal folds must be open - air pressure in lungs can be made even lower than outside to assist inspiration – done by increasing space (volume) in lungs  Boyle's law: volume and pressure are inversely related - if volym
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