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Chapter 4

PLIC55 Chapter 4

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Denis Smyth

PLIC55 Chapter 4 Articulatory phonetics the study of how speech sounds are produced Acoustic phonetics the study of the pronunciation of speech sounds Speech has characteristics not found in other forms of auditory perception Perception of speech is influenced by the context where topdown processing takes placeStructure of Speech Two reasons why speech perception is difficult 1 Distractions ex someone sneezing in the background 2 Variability of speech signalpitch speed etc How we can still perceive speech easily suggests that we make adjustments during speech perception Prosodic factors influence the overall meaning of an utterance y Stress emphasis given to certain syllables in a sentence y Intonation the use of pitch to signal different meanings The pitch pattern of a sentence is called intonational contoury Rate speed of speech The rate of individual words varies depending on the specific sentence Homophones same word different meanings Prosodic factors are sometimes called suprasegmentals which are aspects of the speech that lie over speech segments providing a kind of musical accompaniment to speech How speech sounds consonants really differ whether the air flow is obstructed voicing and if so where place of articulation and how manner of articulation Places of articulationy Bilabialb p y Alveolart d y Velark g Manners of articulationy Stop consonants obstruct the airflow completely for a period of time then release it y Fricative obstructing but not completely stopping the air flow the passage in the mouth through which air travels becomes more narrow causing turbulence y Affricate produced by a stoplike closure followed by a fricative
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