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Chapter 12

MDSA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Max Horkheimer, Exergaming, Photobucket


Department
Media Studies
Course Code
MDSA01H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Chapter
12

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" Media!consumers!increasingly!becoming!media!producers!(YouTube,!
Instagram,!fanfictions,!etc.)!!
!
THEORIES!OF!PLEASURE:!AN!OVERVIEW!
" Media!scholars!used!to!avoid!topic!of!pleasure,!but!when!they!did!rarely!
address!it,!they!forcefully!condemned!it!
" Mark!Horkheimer!+!Theodor!Adorno!(1972)!!!pleasure!is!helplessness,!
flying!away!from!reality!
" Laura!Mulvey!!!set!out!to!destroy!pleasure!afforded!by!Hollywood!cinema!
" Pleasure!emerged!as!a!subject!of!sustained!inquiry!in!1980’s!
" (1975)!Roland!Barthes!!!made!distinction!between!two!types!of!pleasure!
[plaisir,!jouissance]!
" Both!types!arise!out!of!audience,!but!function!differently!
1. Plaisir:!describes!a!comfortable!and!comforting!pleasure!that!emerges!
from!a!passive!interaction!with!a!text!
" Because!plaisir!is!generated!when!audiences!willingly!submit!to!the!
structured!invitations!of!the!text!such!as!its!narrative!form,!its!
stereotypical!image,!or!its!activation!of!the!male!gaze,!it!works!to!
preserve!the!ideological!status!quo,!making!it!an!essentially!
conservative!and!hegemonic!pleasure!
" Typically!associated!with!pleasure!of!consumption!
2. Jouissance:!ecstatic!and!disruptive!pleasure!that!emerges!from!an!
active!engagement!with!a!text!
" Audiences!rework!and!remake!the!text!to!serve!their!own!needs!and!
desires!
" Typically!associated!with!pleasure!of!production!
" Plaisir!!!watching!movie!passively.!Jouissance!!!playing!active!video!game!
" Media!erotics:!reflects!a!concern!with!sensuous,!transgressive,!and!
productive!ways!audiences!interact!with!texts!!!
" Eroticism!is!transgressive!(of!established!order)!and!productive!(of!
something!new)!
" Transgression:!action!or!artistic!practice!that!breaks!with!the!prevailing!
cultural!codes!and!conventions!of!a!society!
" Productive:!generative!of!alternative!pleasures,!meanings,!and!identities.!
Creative,!inventive!
!
TRANSGRESSIVE!TEXTS!
" Certain!kinds!of!texts!more!transgressive!than!others!because!of!the!way!
they!engage!audiences!
" Two!kinds!of!texts!with!strong!potential!for!facilitating!transgression:!
writerly!texts!and!carnivalesque!texts:!
!
1)!THE!WRITERLY!TEXT!
" Barthes!made!crucial!distinction!between!readerly!and!writerly!texts!
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" Readerly!text:!one!whose!meaning!is!relatively!clear!and!settled,!and!
therefore!asks!very!little!of!the!audience!
" Designed!to!be!passively!consumed!
" E.g.!Jaws!movie!designed!to!elict!specific!emotional!responses!(fear)!
" Writerly!text:!more!unfinished!and!unsettled,!and!this!invites!audiences!to!
co"create!meanings!
" Active!involvement!and!interpretation!
" Two!features!common!to!many!writerly!texts:!intertextuality!and!polyphony!
1. Intertextuality:!concerns!the!ways!that!texts!gesture!or!refer!to!other!texts!
" Strategic!intertextuality!!!producer!does!it!on!purpose,!exists!by!
design!
" Tactical!intertextuality!!!initiated!by!audience!member,!
unplanned/unintentional!
o Strategic!intertextuality!classified!into!3!types:!
" !1)!Parodic!allusion:!parody!of!another!text.!E.g.!
Simpsons/Family!Guy!does!this!a!lot!by!mimicking/imitating!
well!known!scenes!or!characters!from!other!texts.!Making!fun!
of!it!
" 2)!Creative!appropriation:!incorporates!an!actual!portion!of!
other!texts.!Done!for!artistic/creative!purposes!instead!of!
mimicking.!E.g.!hip!hop!music!frequently!samples!beats!of!
other!songs!
" 3)!Self"reflexive!reference:!self"awareness!of!one’s!own!
cultural!status.!Relies!on!insider!or!fan"based!knowledge.!
Inside!jokes!to!fans.!!E.g.!dialogue!between!two!characters!
referencing!something!that!happened!in!personal!life!of!one!of!
the!actors!
2. Polyphony:!the!“many"voicedness”!of!a!text,!dialogic!quality!
" Dialogic!text!is!one!that!stages!an!unending!conversation!between!self!
and!other!
!
2)!THE!CARNIVALESQUE!TEXT!
" Carnivalesque:!describes!texts!that!embrace!and!embody!the!spirit!of!
medieval!carnival!
" Carnival!dominated!by!two!elements:!folk!humor!(opposed!to!serious!tone!
and!official!authority!of!both!church!and!state);!and!laughter!(“special!kind!of!
universal!laughter!directed!at!everyone”)!!
" Folk!humor!divided!into!three!main!forms:!
1. Ritual!spectacles:!carnival!pageants!and!comic!shows!in!the!
marketplace!
2. Comic!verbal!compositions:!typified!by!written!and!oral!parodies!as!
well!as!inversions!and!travesties!
3. Genres!of!billingsgate:!curses,!profanities,!insults,!and!invective!
" Folk!humor!in!contemporary!society:!professional!wrestling,!Jerry!Springer!
show,!etc!
" Grotesque!realism:!aesthetic!of!degradation!or!debasement!
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