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Rhetorical analysis.docx

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Media Studies
Michael Petit

5 Rhetorical analysis - Analyze texts for the way they encourage audiences to inhabit certain moods, believe ideas, or undertake certain actions Rhetoric: an overview - Media messages cannot help but convey meanings, and meaning are neutral or objective - Rhetoric: the ancient art of oratory, or as aristole defined it and ability in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion - Kenneth burke Theories of the sign - Sign: something that invites someone to think of something other than itself, such as the way an image of a person invites one to think of that person or the way the unique letter combination - When multiple people agree on what a sign refers to, we say that it has shared meaning Fredinand de Saussure - Semiology: a science which studies the role of signs as part of social life - Investigate the nature of signs and the laws governing them - Signifier: the material form of a sign as perceived by the senses, such as the word dog as heard by a listener (sound image) - Signified: the idea evoked by the signifiers (mental concept) - Signs are arbitrary - Linearity - Langue - Parole - Synchronic analysis - Signs of difference Charles sanders peirce - semiotic: the quasi necessary, or formal, doctrine of signs - something which stands to somebody for something in some respect or capacity - equivalent sign it creates in a person’s mind is known as the interception - something the sign stands for is its object - iconic signs: a sign that structurally resembles the object for which it stands - indexical sign: a sign that conveys meaning through cause or association - symbol: a sign that is linked to its corresponding object purely by social convention or agreement roland barthes - signifying system: - how cultural practices and beliefs are naturalized - denotation: first order signification, plane of expre
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