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MDSA02H3 (54)
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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Thorough Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Media Studies
Ted Petit

3. OrganizationalAnalysis Organizations Collectively, employers and employees comprise organizations: a system (network of ordered relationships and coordinated activities directed toward specific goals Ex:At a film studio there are writers, producers, directors, editors, make-up artists, sound crews, etc. And they all have their own jobs to perform in order to reach a sole organizational goal. Paramount, like any other organization, has two basic dimensions: (1) Structure & (2) Process Structure The underlying framework that shapes an organization over time Includes 3 key elements: (1) hierarchy, (2) differentiation & specialization, (3) formalization (1) Hierarchy The specific arrangement of job roles and positions based upon authority within an organization Some persons or groups have more decision-making power than others within an organization, and thus are central to both the creation and maintenance of a particular corporate culture (2) Differentiation + Specialization Accounts for the division of companies into units, departments, and positions, each of which perform specific tasks If these tasks require a unique set of skills/training, the positions are filled by professionals: individuals who possess expertise in a particular area or field that allows them to accomplish the distinctive tasks of their positions Ex: a book editor is a pro with specialized training and credentials in proofreading and copyediting (3) Formalization The degree to which specific practices must conform to accepted organizational and professional conventions. Process If structure represents the underlying framework of an organization, then process reflects the actual substance built upon that framework Kenneth Burke: container (structure) and thing contained (process) Contents within a container are always shaped and constrained by the container So, while every organizational member, as an individual, engages in unique behaviours and actions (process), such behaviours and actions are always constrained/limited by hierarchy, differentiation & specialization, and formalization (structure) One way to understand the precise ways that structure and process mutually influence one another is to analyze the communicative practices that occur within organizations and how those practices create and maintain a particular organizational culture Communicative practices Every organization develops a unique organizational culture: the set(s) of norms and customs, artifacts and events, and values and assumptions that emerge as a consequence of organizational members' communicative practices 5 ways to study an organization's culture: (1) Performance, (2) Narrative, (3) Textual, (4) management, (5) technology (1) Performance Expressive (I.e: productive and purposeful) displays (I.e: both process and product) that carry symbolic significance (i.e: meaning and implication) in a particular context. 4 important types of organizational performance include (a) Ritual, (b) Sociality, ( c) Politics, and (d) Enculturation (a) Ritual performances: those personal or organizational behaviours that members engage in on a regular or routine basis Ex of Personal ritual: drinking coffee every morning while checking email. This is a personal ritual because it's not necessitated by a job Ex of Organizational ritual: attending weekly faculty meetings. Involves routine behaviours that are necessitated by or expected within a specific workplace environment (b) Sociality: The codes of etiquette that are enacted with regard to friendliness, small talk, joking, and privacy within an organization ( c) Politics:Are performed differently in every organization and influence the type and degree of independence, negotiating, and co
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