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PMDB25H3 (3)
Doug K (3)
Chapter 2

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Therapeutic Communications Chapter 2 Culture is a pattern of many concepts, beliefs, values, habits, skills, instruments, and art of a given group of people in a given period. Multicultural communication is the ability to communicate effectively with individuals of other cultures while recognizing ones own person cultural biases and prejudices and putting them aside. Three important actions to promote multicultural communication are 1) To become knowledgeable about the belief and values of different cultures 2) To develop techniques that build and foster multicultural communication 3) To recognize barriers to multicultural communication. Therapeutic communication is goal oriented 8 Barriers to Therapeutic Transcultural communication 1) Lack of Knowledge 2) Fear & Distrust 3) Racism Race includes any of the major biological division of mankind, distinguished by color and texture of hair, color of skin, and eyes, stature bodily proportions. Racism implies racial discrimination, segregation, and persecution. The elimination of racism in an individual begins with knowledge and the examination of conscious and unconscious attitudes regarding race and culture. The next step is a commitment to change these attitudes. 4) Prejudice, Bias & Ethnocentrism Bias is a slant toward a particular belief. Prejudice is an opinion or judgment that is formed before all of the facts are known; prejudice is usually preconceived and unfavorable. Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture and traditions are better than those of another. 5) Stereotyping Consists of attributing an unvarying description or pattern to a person with no allowance for individuality. Stereotyping says that all individuals of a particular culture are exact alike. 6) Healthcare Rituals Standardized procedure or protocols followed during a client visit 7) Language The dialect of the client must be considered Dialect as well as regionalism may also be encountered with English- speaking clients. African Americans sometimes use a street language called Ebonics. 8) Differences in Perceptions and Expectations Perceptions are insights or intuitions of which we care consciously aware. Perception takes sensory data and personalizes it into images of reality. Expectations are the events we anticipate based on experience or communication. Communication context refers to the style of communication used by a speaker. Two styles of communication context are defined: low and high. Low context communication utilizes few environmental or cultural idioms to convey an idea or concept, but relies mainly on explicit and highly detailed language. - Low context communication =direct and in your face o speaker often thought of as being rude b/c of directness of speech High context communication greater reliance on body language, reference to objects in environment, and culturally relevant phraseology to convey an idea - High context communication assumes speaker + listener both have knowledge regarding subject - high context communication indirect, seems forever to reach conclusion o high speaker often thought of being less educated or mentally slow No communication style is superior to another; important to remember that both speaker and listener should be cognizant of style being used Individuals having a future time focus are usually confident that their basic needs of food and shelter will be met, and are willing to sacrifice immediate gratification for better returns in the future. Future oriented individuals are very time conscious and plan out their day and lives in considerable detail. They are usually prompt for appointments and expect the same of others. Individuals with a present time focus are less assured that their needs will be satisfied. It is difficult to develop future plans when the basic items in the Hierarchy of needs have not been met. It is interesting to note that in cultures where basic needs are provided in abundance, there is also the tendency to have a present time focus. Children in almost all cultures are present time focused. Present oriented people, regardless of the reason for the orientation d not look on time as being as important as do future orientated people and tend to be careless about promptness. Past time focus is associated with culture and longstanding tradition. Past oriented people revere traditions and usually honor elders, both living and dead, as well as animals and nature spirits. Asian cultures and Native American cultures frequently exhibit some past orientation. Culture & Religion have a greater effect on the attitudes relating to medical treatment and therapeutic communication than race and physical characteristics. Paradigms, the unconscious part of our culture result in behavior or choices that may mystify both client and medical personnel Ex/ A clients unwillingness to be treated by a female physician may result from the paradigm that all Doc’s are male. White People High acceptance of Western medicine, relying on Pharmaceutical products and surgical procedures to treat illness and disease. They often take the time to complete extensive research regarding their condition Immediate family serving as care giver. African American Similar to white people, the greatest difference is in how they focus on time. This group is more likely has a present time focus that can result in placing less importance on punctuality and a lesser disposition toward preventive medicine. The extended family is the predominant caregiver. This can be a problem with the HIPAA regulation for privacy unless steps are taken to obtain authorization for release of information from the client. Black People Accept western medicine but often exhibit a predisposition toward home remedies combined with cures based in spiritualism. The primary caregiver is a relative or a member of the extended family, which may include people having tribal affiliation. Present time focused and is not likely to place a great amount of importance on punctuality, nor do they lean toward preventive medicine. Asian People This group
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