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Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

Chapter 3: International History 1900-90 INTRODUCTION Pg. 52 – WW1 (the Great War) – 1 industrialized total war - Ww2 brought USSR and US military politically deep into Europe - Great War brought demise of 4 European empires: Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman - Cold war collapse the wartime alliance between US, UK, USSR - WW2 was atomic bomb, fear that Nazi will win nuclear arm race - 1900 world politics transformed by:  Transition from European crisis to modern total war  End of empire and withdrawal of European countries form imperial acquisitions  Cold war: political, military, nuclear between US and USSR MODERN TOTAL WAR - At Versailles – imposed statement of German war guilt to justify reparations they demanded - Fritz Fischer – German aggression motivated by internal political needs of autocratic elite responsible for war Pg. 53 – 1918 the allied helped bring end to fighting - Total war cause whole societies and economies were mobilized. Men in armies and women worked - US joined war in 1914 by W. Wilson - Wilson Fourteen Points – vision of international society - Versailles Peace Treaty argued new framework for Europe security and new international society  Failed Europe security (Germany not united) - Great Depression – triggered by Wall Street crash, ended liberal democracy and strengthened communist, fascist, Nazis - Economic and political instability provided ground which support for Nazi take roots - Hitler no different from other German leaders, difference – ideas of racial, imperial expansion - Holocaust – Nazi’s attempted genocide of Jewish people and other minorities THE RISE AND FALL OF JAPAN - US prevented from participation in League of Nations - 1868 Japan emerge from isolationism and pursue industrial and military modernization - The imperial expansion Pg. 54 – US against isolationist sentiments - The imposition of American economic sanction, on Japan, led Japan Pearl Harbor attack - Germany, Italy on Japan side by war on US - Defeat of Germany May 1945 before atomic bomb was ready - Why was the bomb dropped? Japan already defeated - Truman’s pursuit to coerce Moscow in pursuit of past-war American interests in Europe and Asia END OF EMPIRE - 20 century demise of imperialism - Cold war often hindered the transition of independence - Influence process of decolonization – strategy of anti-imperialist forces, role of external factors BRITIAN - 1945 British empire across the globe - India (1947) independence, British important country - India, Pakistan creation led to ethnic cleansing - End of empire in Africa at end of 1950s - After 1948, South Africa conducted traditional imperialist FRACE - France occupied during WW2 and government sought to preserve French international prestige by maintaining its imperial status - France withdrew from empire - In Algeria, French refused to leave which led to war and edge of civil war LEGACIES AND CONSEQUENCES: NATIONALISM OR COMMUNISM? - In Asia, relationship between nationalism and Marxism was potent force Pg. 56 – American leaders spoke of a domino theory: if one state fell to communism, the next would be at risk - 20 century, decolonization a key development, imperialism withered, hegemony rises COLD WAR - 1945 US a world power and USSR 1945-53: ONSET OF THE COLD WAR - West think Soviet policy towards Eastern Europe was guided by ideological expansion Pg. 57 – 1947 Truman, US would support those threatened by Soviet and awareness of Soviet plans  Truman doctrine, policy of containment, Marshall Plan (Europe economic recovery) - Berlin 1948, Germany in Soviet zone, Stalin made roads and rail commu
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