PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes -Confounding, Central Tendency, Stereoscopy

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
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Chapter 2 The Ways and Means of Psychology
*Pg. 30-44*
The Scientific Method in Psychology
Scientific Method: A set of rules that govern the collection and analysis of data gained
thought observational studies or experiments.
-psychologists conduct 3 major types of scientific research:
1st Type
-includes naturalistic observation and clinical observation
Naturalistic Observation: The observation of the behaviour of people or other animals
in their natural environments
Clinical Observation: The observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing
diagnosis or treatment
-these methods are the least formal
-natural observations provide the foundations of the biological and social sciences (E.g.
Darwin and his travels around the world helped with his theory on evolution, Montessori
and her observation of children in the classroom helped her ideas about child
development)
2nd Type
Correlational Studies: Is observational in nature but involves more formal
measurement-of environmental events, of individuals physical and social characteristics,
and of their behaviour
3rd Type
Experiments: A study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent
variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent
variable. Only experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among
variables
SIRD Stereogram (Single Image Random Dot)
-naturalistic observations of yourself or your friends at a shopping mall in from of a
SIRD stereogram could provide the context of the problem (likely to observe that some
ppl take longer than others to identify the hidden objects)
-observational evidence identifies the phenomenon and might indicate something about
its magnitude
-correlational evidence arises when you start to observe relations between observations
-systematic investigation produces concrete evidence about the causal role that you
believe visual hints play in seeing the 3D object
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-E.g. Suppose some get a visual hint of what the image looks like, and those were faste at
finding the 3D image, that would now be systematic evidence about the casual role of
visual hints
5 Steps of Scientific Method That Apply to Experiments:
1) Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical cause-and-effect relations among
variables
2) Design the experiment
3) Perform the experiment
4) Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the date from the study
5) Communicate the results writing an article
Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research
-psychological research in Canada has historically been supported by:
1) The Natural Science and Engineering Research Council
2 Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
3) Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Hypotheses
-hypothesis =suggestion
Hypotheses: A tentative statement about a cause-and-effect relation between two or
more events
Theory
Theory: A set of statements that describe and explain known facts, proposes relations
among variables, and makes new predictions
Naturalistic and Clinical Observations as Sources of Hypotheses and Theories
-naturalists are people who carefully observe animals in their natural environment
-naturalistic observation are what naturalists see and record
-naturalistic observers try no to interfere with animals or people being observed and stays
in the background
-clinical psychologists observe in detailed case studies
Case Study: A detailed description of an individual’s behaviour during the course of
clinical treatment or diagnosis
-clinical psychologists do not remain in the background
Survey Study: A study of people’s responses to standardized questions
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Document Summary

Chapter 2 the ways and means of psychology. Scientific method: a set of rules that govern the collection and analysis of data gained thought observational studies or experiments. Psychologists conduct 3 major types of scientific research: Naturalistic observation: the observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environments. Clinical observation: the observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment. Natural observations provide the foundations of the biological and social sciences (e. g. Darwin and his travels around the world helped with his theory on evolution, montessori and her observation of children in the classroom helped her ideas about child development) Correlational studies: is observational in nature but involves more formal measurement-of environmental events, of individuals physical and social characteristics, and of their behaviour. Experiments: a study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable.

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