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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Textbook

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John Bassili

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Psychology Chapter 14: Personality Personality; a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another The goal of psychologists who study personality is to discover the causes of individual differences in behaviour Research on human personality requires two kinds of effort: identifying personality characteristics and determining the variables that produce and control them We must be careful to avoid the nominal fallacy; the false belief that the causes of an event are explained by simply naming and identifying them -not the same as explaining it Trait Theories of Personality Personality traits; a set of personal characteristics that determine the different ways we act and react in a variety of situations Personality Types and Traits Personality types; different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical characteristics Idea is rejected that people can be assigned to discrete categories; generally conceive of individual differences in personality as differences in degree, not king -prefer to measure the degree to which an individual expresses a particular personality trait Personality trait; an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations Personality traits are not simply patterns of behaviour; they are factors that underlie these patterns and are responsible for them Once our personality traits are developed, they reside in our brains Personality traits are carried in our brains Identification of Personality Traits ALLPORTS SEARCH FOR TRAITS Allport; first psychologist to search systematically for a basic core of personality traits www.notesolution.com Identified all words in the dictionary relating to personality traits Then identified those words that described only stable personality characteristics -words that represented temporary states or evaluations were eliminated The wealth of trait terms helped confirm his belief that a well-developed trait theory would have value in understanding human functioning -believed that traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioural consistency over time and contexts by producing functional similarity in the way a given person interprets and experiences events; people with a particular trait react similarly across situations because they experience a unique sense of similarity across those situations that guides their feelings, thoughts and behaviour Cardinal traits; characterize a strong, unifying influence on a persons behaviour Central traits; capture important characteristics of an individual Secondary traits; characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour CATTELL: SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS Used the process of factor analysis to identify clusters of these traits that he believed in turn represented underlying traits Identified 16 personality factors; referred to them as source traits because they were the cornerstones upon which personality was built EYSENCK: THREE FACTORS Also used factor analysis Identified three important factors -extroversion introversion - neuroticism emotional stability -psychoticism self-control These factors are bipolar dimensions Extroversion; the tendency to seek company of other people, to be spontaneous, and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours with them Introversion; the tendency to avoid the company of other people, to be inhibited and cautious, shyness Neuroticism; the tendency to be anxious, worried, and full of guilt www.notesolution.com
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