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Psychology (10,044)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Textbook

16 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 15 Social Psychology
social psychology: branch of psychology that studies our social nature how the
actual, imagine, or implied presence of others influences our thought, feelings, and
behaviours
our perception are affected by our interactions with others
Social Cognition
social cognition: the processes involved in perceiving, interpreting, and acting on
social information
Schemata and Social Cognition
impression information: the way in which we integrate information about
anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is
oour impressions of others are formed by more complex rules than just a
simple sum of the characteristics that we use to describe people
Schema
schema: a mental frame work or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes
information about a person, place, or thing
Central Traits
someone describes another person to you as witty, smart, and warm
oimpression of them = POSITIVE
someone describes another person to you as witty, smart, and cold
oimpression of them = LESS positive
^ central traits: organize and influence our understanding of other traits a person
possesses to a greater extent than do other traits
othese impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet
other traits that have yet to be revealed
ogives you early traits about the person and you act in a certain way due to
that
www.notesolution.com
foolish women were more desirable than foolish men
The Primacy Effect
getting to know someone? Takes time requires many interactions
primacy effect: tendency to form impressions of people based on the first
information we receive about them
as the person speaks, we purposefully think about those behaviours and what they
reveal about the persons qualities
The Self
self-concept: your knowledge, feelings, ideas about yourself. self identity
ohow you interpret yourself and interpret events that are relevant to defining
who you are
odynamic; changes with experiences
self: a persons distinct individuality
self-schema: mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about
yourself
ocognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that
constitute self concept
thinking about ourselves in the present does not accurately reflect what well turn
out to be in the future
Culture and Social Psychology
cross-cultural psych: studies the effects of culture on behavior
differences in cultures
obased on biological diet, genetics
obased on ecological geography, climate, political system
basic psychological processes are universal but are informed BY culture
Markus and Kitayama TWO construals of the self that reflect cultural
differences
www.notesolution.com
othe independent construal : uniqueness of the self, its autonomy from others
and self-reliance
people have an influence on other people BUT ones self-concept is
very independent from that
o the interdependent construal: interconnectedness of people and the role that
others play in developing an individuals self-concept
the individual is sensitive to others .. what other say about individual
affects individual
Attribution
attribution: the process by which people infer the causes of other peoples
behaviours
Disposition versus Situation
primary classification WE make concerning the cause of other peoples behaviours is
determined by internal AND external factors
external factors: stimuli in the physical and social environment
internal factors: a persons traits, needs, and intentions
most situations, people act a certain way we develop schemata for how we expect
people to act in those situations
characterize people as friendly, generous, suspicious, pessimistic etc
obased on our past experiences with them, we place them under a category
Kelleys Theory of Att ribution
attribute the behaviour of other people to external/internal issues on the basis of
three types of information
oconsensual behaviour: behaviour that is shared by many people
behaviour that is similar from one person to the next
refers to whether others behave identically in the given situation
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 15 Social Psychology social psychology: branch of psychology that studies our social nature how the actual, imagine, or implied presence of others influences our thought, feelings, and behaviours our perception are affected by our interactions with others Social Cognition social cognition: the processes involved in perceiving, interpreting, and acting on social information Schemata and Social Cognition impression information: the way in which we integrate information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is o our impressions of others are formed by more complex rules than just a simple sum of the characteristics that we use to describe people Schema schema: a mental frame work or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing Central Traits someone describes another person to you as witty, smart, and warm o impression of them = POSITIVE someone describes another person to you as witty, smart, and cold o impression of them = LESS positive ^ central traits: organize and influence our understanding of other traits a person possesses to a greater extent than do other traits o these impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet other traits that have yet to be revealed o gives you early traits about the person and you act in a certain way due to that www.notesolution.com foolish women were more desirable than foolish men The Primacy Effect getting to know someone? Takes time requires many interactions primacy effect: tendency to form impressions of people based on the first information we receive about them as the person speaks, we purposefully think about those behaviours and what they reveal about the persons qualities The Self self-concept: your knowledge, feelings, ideas about yourself. self identity o how you interpret yourself and interpret events that are relevant to defining who you are o dynamic; changes with experiences self: a persons distinct individuality self-schema: mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about yourself o cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that constitute self concept thinking about ourselves in the present does not accurately reflect what well turn out to be in the future Culture and Social Psychology cross-cultural psych: studies the effects of culture on behavior differences in cultures o based on biological diet, genetics o based on ecological geography, climate, political system basic psychological processes are universal but are informed BY culture Markus and Kitayama TWO construals of the self that reflect cultural differences www.notesolution.com o the independent construal: uniqueness of the self, its autonomy from others and self-reliance people have an influence on other people BUT ones self-concept is very independent from that o the interdependent construal: interconnectedness of people and the role that others play in developing an individuals self-concept the individual is sensitive to others .. what other say about individual affects individual Attribution attribution:the process by which people infer the causes of other peoples behaviours Disposition versus Situation primary classification WE make concerning the cause of other peoples behaviours is determined by internal AND external factors external factorss :timuli in the physical and social environment internal factors: a persons traits, needs, and intentions most situations, people act a certain w aywe develop schemata for how we expect people to act in those situations characterize people as friendly, generous, suspicious, pessimistic etc o based on our past experiences with them, we place them under a category Kelleys Theory of Attribution attribute the behaviour of other people to external/internal issues on the basis of three types of information o consensual behaviour b:ehaviour that is shared by many people behaviour that is similar from one person to the next refers to whether others behave identically in the given situation www.notesolution.com o distinctivenesst:he extent to which a person behaves differently toward different people, events, or stimuli distinctiveness describes whether the behavior is unique to the particular circumstance or manifests across a wide variety of circumstances. behaviours that are distinctively associated with a particular situation are attribute to that external cause o consistency: the extent to which a persons behaviour is consistent across time toward another person, an event, or a stimulus refers to whether the individual behaves identically from case to case in the given situation if consistency is low, then it increases ones confusion Attributional Basis The Fundamental Attribution Error fundamental attribution error t: e tendency to overestimate the significance of internal factors and underestimate the significance of external factors in explaining others behaviour o ex/goalie gets scored onconclude that goalie lacks skill as opposed to the fact that his sight was blocked o ex/ VICTIM BLAMING = attribution error, very common belief in a just worldp:eople believe that the world is a fair place in which people get what they deserve o people tend to blame the victim when misfortune or tragedy strikes o by doing so; it completes a just outcome for the person THUS protecting the belief that the world is fair o makes ppl believe that their long term efforts towards a just goal, will eventually be achieved blame poor for their predicament avoid having to deal with the unjust issue of poverty www.notesolution.com
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