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Chapter 10

PSYB30H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Penis Envy, Phallic Stage, John Bowlby


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Lisa Fiksenbaum
Chapter
10

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 11 pages of the document.


Ramona v. Isabella
Holly Ramona's memories of being abused as a child were: most likely implanted in her memory by
her therapist.
Holly Ramona was: probably induced to have false memories.
Hypnosis and sodium amytal usually lead to: distorted memories.
The Ramona case discussed in the test demonstrates that: therapists can be held accountable for
inducing false memories.
 
psychoanalysisSigmund Freud
 !
Which of the following statements would a modern psychoanalyst most likely agree with? The unconscious
plays an important role in human functioning.
Western contemporary psychoanalysis!
Westerncontemporary psychoanalysts"ids, superegosrepressed
sexuality#$$!
%contemporary psychoanalysis"
""$!
Western&
! unconscious'()
Freud"!
*! + 
 !
,!  
!
! -"!
&! .  /0  
"!
The neo-analytic view places more emphasis on relating to others and less emphasis on sexual urges than
Freud did.
Repression & Contemporary Research on Memory
Elizabeth Loftus
1repressedrecovered memories/!
"'(recovered memories!2
 3"recovered memories!
4'(recovered memories!
!
( false memories$
popular press!
o-$$  5" 
$  
 !
6false memories !
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Memory research conducted by Loftus suggests that false memories can be created: with leading questions.
A variety of techniques are used in therapy that encourages patients to reflect on their childhoods.
Hypnosis is one technique used to get patients to recall freely childhood experiences within the
protection of a relaxed, suggestion-induced, trancelike-state.
But scientific literature shows that hypnosis does not improve memory – this is why hypnotizing
witness is not allowed in courts of law.
Loftus "   
 7 "
 $ !
"#"
 "
If individuals are directed to imagine something that did not happen them it might lead to what
Loftus and her colleagues called the imagination effect.
4"false memories8  
9 repressed memories
$#$5$
  $ 
!
A behaviorist is certain that the problem one is her clients is facing must be due to bad learning. She
may be suffering from the: confirmatory bias.
A Closer Look: So, You Want to Have a False Memory
:  3 ";
<"!
=07  
0!
The idea that memory influences what people recall is known as: constructive memory.
>/perimental procedures developed by Henry Roediger & Kathleen McDermott can create false memories
in: 80% of research participants.
They devised the technique based on the spreading activation model of memory.
This model of memory holds that mental elements (i.e., words or images) are stored in memory
along with associations to other elements in memory.
Spreading activation: refers to a model of memory that suggests that information is stored with
associations to other related elements in memory.
You are assigned to learn the following list of words: bagel, bread, pie, cake, and turnover. I then
ask you to tell me what words on a second list you remember from the first list. You add the
word "donut" to the list. This is an example of spreading activation.
%&'
- unconscious "
Freudunconscious " !
two differing viewsunconscious"  " (
 "!
*
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"cognitive unconscious view$"
" "
" "!
?/subliminal perception5
+$5)$91
"!
Research participants who are subliminally primed with the word "candy" would probably: be
quicker to recognize the word candy a few minutes later.
osubliminal informationprimes !
oResearch on subliminal perception suggests that: information can enter memory
unconsciously —does not cause people to act differently
o"$"
'(primed.
Priming is a procedure that makes associated material more accessible to
conscious awareness.
%cognitive viewunconsciousunconscious mind
7$onsciousness!
ounconscious2conscious"!
The motivated unconscious view holds that the unconscious mind causes behaviors.
)""
Id psychology: best represents Freud's ideas; we characterize Freudian psychoanalysis as id psychology.
Later psychoanalysts felt that the ego deserved more attention; Freud placed too much emphasis on
the id and now focus is on the ego
Erik Erikson emphasized the ego as a powerful, independent part of personality
oThe ego was evolved in mastering the environment, achieving one’s goals, and hence
establishing one’s identity.
Erikson is credited with starting ego psychology
>secure identityprimary function of the ego!
Identify"""$)
"!
("
 #
"""" """
!
6identify crisiscommon experience during adolescence
;$midlife crisis<
(Erikson’" notion of identify
   9
)*+)","! 
4Freud "&Erikson
 !
Freud and Erikson mostly disagreed that: personality development continues throughout life.
Erikson believed that the development of personality lasted well into adulthood and even old age.
He outlined eight stages of development by which we all pass
,
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