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Chapter 6

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Vending Machine, Emo


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Amanda Uliaszek
Chapter
6

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BEHAVIOUR AND MODIFICATION _______________________________________________ ble___
Chapter 6: Extinction
What is Operant Extinction?
Extinction: when discussing operant beh -> two meanings
- procedure or condition where a previously reinforced response no longer receives
reinforcement and it is a process where the rate and force is performing the no longer reinforced
response decrease
to start extinction procedure for a target beh, must identify what the reinforcement is and be
able to control its source
- if dont control source of reinforcement carefully -> extraneous reinforcers may occur and
reinstate the beh
extinction can apply to beh that received positive or neg reinforcement – both cases
reinforcement is terminated and beh declines
Extinction for Positive Reinforcement
if consequence of beh = + , the extinction procedure involves making sure those reards are no
longer provided
Extinction for Negative Reinforcement
if neg reinforcement – the extinction procedure involves preventing the person from escaping or
avoiding the unpleasant sit
ex doing tantrums to get out of school -> must be not allowed to escape or avoid school
The Process and Characteristics of Extinction
Extinction Burst and Aggression
vending machine ex shows two phenomena of extinction
- when reinforcement fails to occur, the response often increases temporarily in its freq and
magnitude = extinction burst – may result from frustration
beh in extinction may not always show a burst but when it does, ppl who want to change the
beh but dont expect a burst may think that extinction does not work
other phenomenon the vending ex showed was aggression
- extinction increases target person's aggression and other emo beh
- ways to curb problems are to instruct person of new contingencies in advance and to combine
extinction with other methods like reinforcement for other actions
using extinction, reinforce 2 types of actions:
- competing response: action that is incompatible or interferes witht performance of a target beh
– ex folding arms = cant flap hands for autistic children
- alternative beh: dissimilar to and can take the place of target beh as a desirable act but the two
actions arent necessarily incompatibility and could occur tgthr – ex raising hand to answer
question rather than screaming
- any strong reinforcer can strengthen an alternative beh
Gradual Decline and Reappearance of the behaviour
extinction has two other characteristics
- beh tends to decline gradually or irregularly rather than immediately and smoothly
- extinguished beh can reappear temporarily, even though reinforcement is not give for the beh
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