PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 27: American Psychological Association, Classical Conditioning, Therapeutic Relationship

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Chapter 27: Current Concerns and Future Research
Dilemmas in Efforts to change behaviour:
Dilemmas = 2 categories:
o 1. Behv change goals
o 2. Methods of intervention
Are the Behaviour Change goals acceptable?
Goal acceptability degree to which outcome or behavioural goals are appropriate and
reasonable
Deciding if behaviour goals are acceptable:
Two broad goal acceptability criteria:
o 1. High degree of social validity
o 2. Should involve a clinically significant improvement that can realistically be hoped to
achieve
Evaluate acceptability criteria by answering several relevant questions
Starting phrase “would achieving the goals” :
Be likely?
Improve general adaptive functioning?
Decrease likelihood of physical or psychological harm to oneself/
others?
Decrease difficulties o/ ppl experience w/ targ person’s behv?
Bring targ behv to a normal level?
Affirmative answer at least 1 q = goals might be acceptable but a “no” answer to
the 1st q limits goal acceptability
Close up: Trying to make Gays straight:
Criteria for acceptability affected by current beliefs
History efforts to alt sexual orientation of gays based on belief that it was a wrong learned
choice
Thought ppl b/cm gay b/c of the experiences they have
One theory: based on respondent conditioning: preference learned through conditioning
o Same sex person (cs) paired with sexual arousal (Us) through seduction
Other theory: psychodynamic view: parent-child relationships determine sexual orientation
o Males b/cm gay b/c fathers are detached and ineffectual & mothers dominating and
overprotective
Failure of conversion or reparative therapy attempt to change clients sexual preferences
o Some use psychodynamic procedures, o/s behavioural methods involving aversive
stimuli, o/s fundamentalist Christian programs of “reorientation counselling
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o Aversion therapy electric shocks paired w/ sexually arousing pics or thoughts
o Gerald Davidson pioneered use of behavioural methods to change sexual orientation
o Professional organizations recommend against the use of these forms of therapy
o Conversion therapies do not meet goal acceptability
Examples of Dilemmas in behaviour Change Goals:
Should a therapy program pursue the goal of helping obese individuals achieve normal weight
levels?
o 1990 anti-dieting movement formed claiming it’s genetic for some, those who do lose
weight usually gain it back, ppl who aren’t obese don’t necessarily live longer etc
Should therapy program pursue the goal of decreasing children’s extremely oppositional and
aggressive behaviour if doing so requires them to play alone much of the time?
o Solitary play intervention reinforced req to play quietly without interacting w/ others
in any way
o Cooperative play intervention reinforcement reqs play with no rule violation
Found oppositional behv to decrease during solitary play but not cooperative
play emphasizing treatments focusing on solitary behvs would be more effective
o Critics feel encouraging kids w/ high levels of oppositional behv to b.cm less sociable
would not be acceptable way of correcting the problem
Are the Behaviour change methods acceptable?
Treatment acceptability extent to which client & community consider methods to be fair,
appropriate, reasonable
o Part of social validity assessment (goal, procedures, outcomes evaluated)
o Important to protect clients rights and make intervention agreeable to clients
Treatments involving Aversive Stimuli:
Greatest concerns= physically aversive stimuli as punishers or as USs in aversion therapy
When aversive stimuli used as punishers, severity should be as mild as possible still allowing to
reduce unwanted behv
Professional committee must review plan and give approval
Therapist must describe aversive methods to client and seek their consent
Some organizations oppose use of all painful stimuli, o/s allow it under very restricted
circumstances
Consider if ends justify the means (if there is no o/ alternative aside from aversive methods)
Assessing Treatment Acceptability:
Indivs fill out rating scales, evaluate methods applied
Clients rate treatment methods if we wanted to know whether they would participate fully in
their own therapy
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Document Summary

Goal acceptability degree to which outcome or behavioural goals are appropriate and reasonable. Two broad goal acceptability criteria: 1. Should involve a clinically significant improvement that can realistically be hoped to achieve. Evaluate acceptability criteria by answering several relevant questions. Starting phrase would achieving the goals : Decrease likelihood of physical or psychological harm to oneself/ Affirmative answer at least 1 q = goals might be acceptable but a no answer to the 1st q limits goal acceptability. Criteria for acceptability affected by current beliefs. History efforts to alt sexual orientation of gays based on belief that it was a wrong learned choice. Thought ppl b/cm gay b/c of the experiences they have. One theory: based on respondent conditioning: preference learned through conditioning: same sex person (cs) paired with sexual arousal (us) through seduction. Other theory: psychodynamic view: parent-child relationships determine sexual orientation: males b/cm gay b/c fathers are detached and ineffectual & mothers dominating and overprotective.

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