PSYB65H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Biological Neural Network, William H. Calvin, Oliver Sacks

101 views16 pages
Published on 3 Dec 2015
School
Department
Course
 
Chapter 15 – How Does the Brain Think?

 !"#$!%&'()**&$!$ +$),*,-,*($&*.%!.$&*+.*
!$&+.$,#).. ,$#! &,!#%&*+*,.!&%, &,*,*.,,!
.%!.$
o.$&$%+ &,*!.&$',!,.!!$&+*)-$,%.&**)/-*,
*#$,! *!! &*!0$.*$01($!,-.
0$*).*$01($!,- &*&0,0$#&'!"#$-$2.,*'
%*%&3 !,*.$0$'+&'(.&0,#$split brain
,%%!!($&*&*!.&0+,*)*)$&0&!4!+#, .&*)!*.$
,$ &&!'%%$ &
o(,$-,$%&&!42.$)..&*+(#*,-.&*+56!&$&,*,-
.%!.$! &#!+!!#!2.0!#,!&& &&(!,-.$).
.%!.$7 ,*$,!.-.&*+8
.-&*+$)..%!.$!*)&)*+3$*'!,-.*4*)
15.1 – Nature of Thought
Psychological constructs –+&!.&$!#-$,%&!,-%$!!,*.%*+
,*!$# !.+&&!(*)$&0*-9!*,&**,(!*&*+&$*-$$+
-$,%(.&0,#$
o:.,#)./&*)#&)/%%,$'/%,,*&*+%,0&,*7.&$+,!#+'8
.($&*+,!*,,$)&*"+&$,#*+.! ,*!$# !.'&$#!#&'*,, &"+
*.!&%& 
!!#%*)&*#$,,) &(&!!-,$!' .,,) & ,*!$# !4%%,$'!&(&++&
56(#2!.,#+*9)0#,*$'*),1)#$,#2.$.'&$&*+.,2.($&*
$,+# !.%
Cognition – .,#).$, !!!.,22 ,%,4*,2&(,#.2,$+
o.&0,#$&*#$,! *!!56*&!.&(',&'&*,!%#
72..$:$*&,$*$*&8,&*%&**)-#$!,*!!,.%
o:$*&!%# #.*#$&& 0'*,#$!*!,$'$ ,$!
o*$*&!%#!$*)-$,%.&!2&!-$,%*#$&$, !!!
Characteristics of Human Thought
#%&*.,#).!0$(&/&*%&.,#).!*,*0$(&
&*)#&))0!.#%&*!&*+)*.*4*);
o$,0+!.($&*&%&*!,- &),$"*)*-,$%&,*5&!')$,#,).$
,(< !/& ,*!&*+0*!.&.&0 ,%%,*-& ,$!
o$,0+!&%&*!,-,$)&*"*)%/! &'-##$%*&(!#!,
&*,#$(.&0,#$&$,#*+%*2&'!.&*,*0$(&&*%&! &**,
o#%&*&*)#&).&!syntax –!,-$#!&(,##*)2,$+!,).$,
$&%&**)-##$&* !
.,#).,.$&*%&!&$&(,$,+# 0, &"&,*!.'&$#*&(,
$&$$&*).!,$,+# *2%&**)!
o& 4,-!'*&:=%&4!&*%&&*)#&)$&&*+*>:(
o#%&*&*)#&)=>:('.&&,2!#!,&4&(,#0$'.*)
0$& 4!!#++&*'&$,++&-(,'2.,++*,4*,2!)*&*)#&)&*+
.#!2&!*,:,!+,!'*&:
o.+.&+*,$,(%!2.$ #& &),$"&,*/(# ,#+*,.,+
&(!$& &! !*.!%*+$> *)/&'*)/&***)
o*&(,%&)*.*)! ,*1*+,&$&&*+%%+&$ ,*
&*)#&)+0,!**&'* .+$*( &#!..#%&*($&*!$,)$&%%+,
#!2,$+!*&-,$%,-#*0$!&)$&%%&$
o*.&(!* ,-2,$+!*,)$&%%&$ &*+0,*,.).$0.,#).
&*%$)
'*&:*>#* !.*&#$,-,#$.*4*)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 16 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
 
#%&*($&* &*!$*),).$0*!/%,0%*!&*+.,#).!56 ,%(*
%#! &*,!*,%,+!
o'*&:!&*:&%,-,#$**&.#%&*2&',-.*4*)&(,#.2,$+
?&%&0*.%,,$!@#* !%,$&*,&* *.#%&*!2$.,*!
#!+*.#**)
o.$,2*)&$, 4&&%,0*)&$)!& ,%:& .&*+!&,,-
&***)=.($&*.&!,& 0$'+&,-.!%,0%*!&*+.*
!.%,#*&!%,,5>,2*):$* #*@#,.#%&*!
* ,%&$!,*,.#%&*!/ .%! &*.$,2,(< !(#*,&!& #$&'
#%&*&(',!$*)&,*)0*!%&'.&0$,%,+&*)#&)+0,%*=
!,4*2,$+!<#!&!@#* ,-%,0%*!*0,0*).,*)#&*+%,#.
,2.-$,*&5,(+&%&).&0+A #')*$&*)*,0!,#,*!,
$,(%!& 4*)%&)*&,*
o$,*&,(,$)&*"!(.&0,#$&*+.*4*)
3(B2.#%&*!&*+&*%&!!",--$,*&,(
CDCE
$*$($)!#++:.&$$,9!&(',.*4&*+#!&*)#&)
:#!!,+*-'/$@#!/&*+$-#!%!
o,%:.*4*). ,%$.*+!.@#!,*/, &!.$).,(< *
.$). ,,#$/&*+* ,+!.$).0, &(,,&*!2$$,$'
o&+,%*&' ,%(*. ,* !,-+3$*'!,-,(< !.*
1)#$,#.,(< !!.&
o?&!&(,#*+$!&*+2.&.2&!&!4*)-,$&*+2,#++ *,(< !.&
..&+*,&!4+-,$
Neural Unit of Thought
$+!&$&(,.*42.,#,!!!!*)&*, ,$:=2.&2.,#).2&!
* !!&$'-,$.,#).
$+!0,0+! 1 ($&**# .&-#* ,*4.&'$!,-..#%&* ,$:56
.*4*)%#!(&-#* ,*,- ,%:*#$& $ #!*,,-!,%&$ #&$$),**
.($&*
,*&+E((cell assemblies $$!*.,(< !,$+&!&*+.*$&'
&%,*).*2,$4!$!#!* ,%:%*&& 0'
o,** ,*!&%,*)*#$,*!&$*,$&*+,%,$)&*"+*,!'!%!&*+
!#(!'!%!
o.*4*)%#!$!#-$,%& 0',-.!*#$& $ #!
?&%2!,%$&**)%,*4'!,+*-'&&$*%,,**&!,-%,0*)
+,!,*&0!,*! $*
o!&$ .!0&$+.+A #',-.&!4('%&*#&*).*#%($,-
+,!.&%,0+*.!&%+$ ,*-,*'!,%+,!%,0+*.!&%
+$ ,*( &%%,$+A #
o.$!.,+*#%($,-+,!%,0*),).$!$@#$+, $&&&$*
%,,*-,,!%&;.02$)!.%$!!,*.&.$#!$&*+,%
%,0%*
o-$$&**).%,*'!*.!&!4/.:$%*$!$ ,$++-$,%!*)
*#$,*!*0!#&&$&D=2. . ,*&*! !!*!0,%,0%**&
$-$$++$ ,*
?.*0$ &%,0%* $,!!!!$ 01+&*#$,*$!,*+!
2.&0),$,#!(&,-!
-&!,%,*.$&*+,%& 0',-.+,!* $&!!*.
*#$,*!$-$$++$ ,*.*#$,*2!,$!,*+*)( &#!
+,!*,+ & ,*!!*&$*
o!#!#*@#0, &;.!*!0',-*+0+#&*#$,*!!0$'!%&$,
.$ #&!*!0',-.%,*4'!,&&$*%,,*
-*+0+#&*#$,*!-&+,$!,*+,!%##!.%,*4'!
(.&0+&!-.'++*,$ 0&*'&&$*%,,*
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 16 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
 F
,2+,!& 0',-&*')0**#$,* ,$$&2..$#&.$!.,+-,$
&&$*%,,*G
o-,#$$ ,*,-&&$*%,,*$!#!-$,%!#%%+& 0',-%&*'
+,"*!,$0*.,#!&*+!,-*#$,*!/ ,$$&,*2,#+:!(2*
.& 0',-&*',**#$,*&*+.$ ,*
o-,#$$ ,*,-&&$*%,,*!*>#* +('*+0+#&*#$,*!/
.*&!$,*) ,$$&,*2,#+:!(2*.& 0',-&!*) &*+
.$ ,*
$ #&+ !,*!%&'(%&+('.$!,*!!,-&&$),,,-*#$,*!
((9!+& ,*0$)*).*#!,-*+0+#&*#$,*!,&$$0&& ,*!*!#!=
*#$,*&*!%($$!*!&!*!,$'0*7&&$*%,,*8.&.& 0',-
.*!%(+ !
&!!%(!$,0+.(&!!-,$ ,)*,*+3$**!%(! ,%,).$
,$,+#  ,.$*.,#).!
*+0+#&*#$,*!*& &!!%('& &! ,%#&,*&#*
o0*,*!,&$'*#$,* &*+ +,*!,2*2.*,1$-!!#%%+
*#!*+ &.&%,0%*!&4*)& 
o#$,*!&$.,*'%*!,-.($&*.&%&4+ !,*!.$,#).
,%(**)0+* .'&$.-,#*+&,*,- ,)*0$, !!!&*+
.,#).
15.2 – Cognition and the
Association Cortex
$%&$'!*!,$'&*+%,,$ ,$ &$),*!=
BF,-.*, ,$:
o,#$ ,-*#!..&&%#!7$!!
&,.($&*!%8
o$%&$'!*!,$' ,$:$ 0!*#
-$,%.&&% *# .&$ 0
*-,$%&,*-$,%.(,+'9!!*!
,$)&*!
BF=, &+*.-$,*&/%,$&/
&$&&*+, &,(!=association
cortex=$,+# ! ,)*,*
o&!&+!* 0&$*,-
,** ,*!
o 0!*#!-$,%..&&% &$&!.&$ 0.$*#!-$,%,.$
$),*!,-. ,$:*#!&$.).'$, !!+=+3$**-,$%&,*
-$,%.$&2*-,$%&,*$& .*).
$%&$'!*!,$'&*+%,,$ ,$:
o,*&*!4*,2+)&(,#,#$
:$*&B*$*&2,$+,$&(,#
%,0%*!
o%,$&&!!, &,**+,$,+# 
,)*,*$&+,0!#&&*+&#+,$'
$, !!*)
o&$& ,$:=%,0%* ,*$,&*+
!,%&,!*!&,*
o$,*& ,$:= ,,$+*&!*-,$%&,*
,%*)-$,%.&$&&*+%,$&
&!!, &,*$),*!2.*-,$%&,*
,%*)-$,%!#( ,$ &$),*!
.%#!#(+0!,*!,-.$-$,*&
,$:* ,%&!!!+,$!&/&$&/,$(&
-$,*&&*+%+&$),*!
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 16 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.