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Chapter 1

PSYC32H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Evoked Potential, Telepathy, Angiography


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC32H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Chapter
1

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PSYC31H3 Week 1 Notes on Chapter 1
What Is Clinical Neuropsychology?:
Clinical Neuropsychology: A division of psychology specializes in the clinical
assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits.
Experimental Neuropsychology: The field of psychology that focuses on brain-
behaviour relationships usually using animals as subjects.
Positron-Emission Tomography (PET):
Computed Tomography (CT):
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI):
Historical Background:
The term neuropsychology was first used by Sir William Osler in an address
entitled “Specialism in the General Hospital.”
American Psychological Association (APA):
Ancient Hypothesis to Modern Theories of Brain Functioning:
The early study of the brain is explored through archival data and relics from
early people.
Ancient civilizations provide us some indications of what they viewed as the role
of the brain and how individuals with brain difficulties should be or were treated.
Neolithic Period or Stone Age:
Trephination: The oldest known surgical technique in which a small piece of bone
is removed from the skull leaving a hole in the skull; the procedure has been
done for medical and religious reasons.
The procedure is believed to have developed as a way to relieve the
pressure caused by brain swelling.
Examples of behaviours that would cause this surgery included:
behaviours that resemble the delusions and hallucinations of
schizophrenia or possibly, behaviours similar to our case study that were
secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI).

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Many accounts of trephining relate the procedure to the release of evil
spirits which were though to reside within the individual’s head (brain).
Verona systematically studied trephined skulls to see if there was a
pattern to the use of trephining:
He looked at 750 skulls collected from Peru. He realized the
Peruvians did trephine woman and children but mostly trephining
was restricted to men.
Most trephinations appeared to occur after the individual had
received a skull fracture from a club or a projectile from a slingshot.
So more often than not the trephinations were for medical reasons
not religious ones.
There was an awareness of possible infections during trephinations…
however sometimes there was damage to the brain due to lack of
precision.
The Egyptians:
The Egyptians’ lack of brain knowledge is shown through examining early
Egyptian burial practices. The Egyptians’ lack of brain knowledge is shown
through examining early Egyptian burial practices. The process of mummification
could take as long as 70 days to complete. The reason for the length of
mummification is due to the fact that many of the internal organs are kept and
preserved….however the brain is scraped out and discarded.
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus: Early Egyptian manuscript which described the
techniques used to treat various forms of difficulties including brain trauma.
Imhotep is thought to be the founder of Egyptian medicine and the original
author of the papyrus.
Included in the document are references to head or brain injuries and their
treatment. It gave reference to what are currently the meninges (the layers
of tissue covering the brain) and the cerebrospinal fluid.
Also discussed early ways to determine which patients could be
successfully treated, which patients’ status was questionable, and which
patients were too severely impaired for treatment. As stated by Finger
(2000), this manner of determining the severity of injuries foreshadows our
current system of triage, particularly within the military.
Brain-Behaviour Relationships: A relationship that exists between certain
functions of the brain and overt behaviours.

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After conquering Egypt Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria.
Herophilus (335 – 280 BC) and Erasistratus (304 – 250 BC) worked in the city.
They were the first to the purpose the brain as the center of reason. They
provided the first accurate and detailed description of the human brain including
the ventricles.
In this city they were free of the prohibitions of Athens which forbade the
use of dissection.
They did most of the work through dissection of dead bodies, and
vivisections on condemned criminals.
Vivisection: The dissection of the body, animal or human, while it is still
living.
Ventricular Localization Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mental and spiritual
processes reside within the ventricles canals.
Cell Doctrine: A term synonymous with the ventricular localization hypothesis,
i.e., that the ventricles were the location of higher order mental and spatial
processes.
The ventricles are the sites that produce and transport cerebrospinal fluid and
have no role in higher order brain functioning.
Cerebrospinal Fluid: (Cushions the brain within the skull) is made in the choroid
plexus and flows through the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, the space
between the layers of the brain.
Ancient Greeks:
Pythagoras (582-507 BC), a mathematician, was the first to suggest that the
brain was the organ responsible for human thought. Helped write the Brain
Hypothesis.
Brain Hypothesis: The hypothesis that the brain is the source of human thought
and behaviour.
Hippocrates (460 – 379 BC), considered to be the founder of modern medicine,
further expanded the understanding of the brain. Created the Hippocratic Oath.
He removed himself from the religious description of the brain and heart
but also began the use of observation as a tool of science.
Hippocratic Oath: An agreement that Hippocrates demanded of physicians
ensuring that they would do no harm in their quest to appropriately treat their
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