Textbook Notes (367,931)
Canada (161,511)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 6


5 Pages
Unlock Document

Ivanka Knezevic

HSW Chapter 6: 1 HOW SOCIETIES WORK CHAPTER 6: LIVING IN CAPITALIST SOCIETIES Isn’t Bigger Better? - Tend to assume that large corporations are benefiting society as a whole - Creation of large global economic units also means that entire economy can be put at risk when small number of major businesses find themselves in crisis - As capital becomes more international and economy becomes more integrates, then collapse of major corporation can be serious concern - Biggest concern is their sheer global power - allows them to assert dominance not only in economic sphere but in ideological and political spheres too Restructing of Work Control over Workers - In effort to discipline workers and increase profits, employers increasingly gained control - Scientific management aka Taylorism - concept by Frederick Winslow - aim was increased managerial control over worker with goal of maximizing worker output - Fordism - Henry Ford developed first automated production line - further advances control over worker via technology - now referred to as period of capitalist development marked by intensive production, max use of machinery and complex divisions of labour - Ford also introduced notion of improving wages (allowed employees to buy cars coming off new assembly lines) - Early 1970s: completion b/w TNCs increased, and pressure to up their rate of profit - Post-Fordism - new social and technical forms of work organization, with production linked to electronic information-based technologies - Lean production: shift to post-fordist model can be connected to set of new management policies needed to improve profitability - Shift to lean has 3 aspects 1. Attempt to eliminate “waste: by moving to just-in-time production, minimal staffing levels and greater worker productivity 2. Workplace is restructured around more differentiated workforce, with precarious forms of employments replacing many permanent jobs 3. Increased “management by stress” as result of declining workforce and threat of layoffs, in order to discipline employees and get them to work harder Growth of Precarious Labour - Precarious employment - forms of work characterized by limited social benefits and statutory entitlements, job insecurity, low wages and high risks of ill health - Young people, women, immigrants are finding themselves in this type of work - Not only means lower wages and les certain employment but also greater flexibility for employer in hiring and work schedules - Reserve army of unemployed (Marx): body of workers who move in and out of labour force Decline in Real Wages - On average, real wages for women increased by 11.6% in 20 year span - most dramatic improvement was among women aged 45 to 49 (+17.8%) - Real wages of men increased by about 1.3% - 2000 to2008, proportion of minimum wage jobs grew from 4.7 to 5.2% Growing Intensity of Labour - Major way to increase profits is to extend working day without increasing wages - Afraid of losing their jobs, many people were putting in excessive hours - some were working too much while other were not working much - Workers are made to do more cause of cuts to number of workers - originally referred to as “speed up” (if line were made to move faster, workers would have to work faster to keep up with machine) Are New Technologies the Problem? - 1950s and 1960s represented utopian future - Capital is compelled to constantly introduce new technologies into workplace - For capital, new technologies are introduced to increase profitability - Blue-collar jobs: involve working primarily with one’s hands - traditionally such labourers, predominantly males, wore darker shirts while they worked - White-collar jobs: wore suits, white suits, ties to work and where mental labour dominates - affected by introduction of digital technologies Worker Alienation - With social classes, work began to change - as appropriate class began to control surplus produced by others - In capitalist societies, most people who work are completely separated from means of production - Capability to labour has been reduced to object that can be bought and sold - labour becomes commodity HSW Chapter 6: 3 - Alienation (Marx): separation of workers from their labour, and all that this entails - workers in capitalism lose control over work process, product and surplus value they create - Other class decides what is produced, how
More Less

Related notes for SOCA01H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.