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Chapter 18

SOCA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 18: Consumerism, Horizontal Integration, Vertical Integration

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Francisco Villegas

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Textbook Notes SOCA01 November 4, 2015
Chapter # 18 (460-480) Noelle Douitsis
Mass Media ad Mass Couicatio
The Significance of the Mass Media
What are the Mass Media?
- Mass Media: print, radio, TV, and other communication technologies. The
word mass implies that the media reach many people. The word media signifies
that communication does not take place directly through face-to-face
o Used interchangeably with mass communication
- Communication through mass media is usually one way/one-sided
- Members of the audience cannot exert much influence on the mass media
they can only choose to tune in or tune out
The Rise of the Mass Media
- Most of the mass media are recent inventions
- The first developed system of writing appeared only about 5500 years ago in
Egypt and Mesopotamia
- Print media became a phenomenon only in the 19th century
- Newspaper first appeared in US in 1830
- 1844 – Samuel Morse sent the first telegraphic signal – from this time on,
long-distance communication no longer required physical transportation
- Most electronic media are creatures of the 20th century
- First commercial TV broadcast was 1920s
Communication Speed-up
- A fast-paced media and technology rich environment affords plenty of
opportunities to multitask
Causes of Media Growth
1) The Protestant Reformation
- Martin Luther’s new form of Christianity, known as Protestantism, was
established in half of Europe where millions of people were being
encouraged to read
- The bible became the 1st media product in the West
- Technological improvements in papermaking made diffusion of the Bible and
other books possible
- Johann Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press
- Remarkable feature of the book is its durability
- Electronic storage media became obsolete (eight-track tapes, floppy disks)
2) Democratic movements
- 18th century onwards, citizens wanted to become literate and gain access to
previously restricted centres of learning
- Democratic governments in turn depended on an informed citizenry and
encouraged popular literacy and the growth of free press
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Textbook Notes SOCA01 November 4, 2015
Chapter # 18 (460-480) Noelle Douitsis
- TVs influence first came present in 1960s between John F. Kennedy and
Richard Nixon – analyst believe that Kennedy got the edge simply because 70
million viewers thought he looked better on TV
- Soon Canadian politicians were hiring image consultants
3) Capitalist industrialization
- Modern industries required a literate and numerate workforce
- They also needed rapid means of communication to do business efficiently
- The mass media turned out o be a major source of profit
Theories of Media Effects
- The nation is an imagined community, and the mass media make it possible
for us to imagine it
- The mass media perform an important function by coordinating the
operation of industrial and post-industrial societies
- The mass media are also important agents of socialization
- The mass media involves social control; it help ensure conformity
- Mass media provides entertainment
Conflict Theory
- Conflict theorists say that functionalism exaggerates the degree to which the
mass media serve the interest of the entire society
- Dominant classes and political groups benefit disproportionally from the
mass media in 2 ways:
o The mass media broadcast beliefs, values and ideas that create
widespread acceptance of the basic structure of society including it’s
injustices and inequalities
o Ownership of mass media is highly concentrated in the hands of a sall
number of people and is highly profitable for them thus the mass
media are source of economic inequality
Media Ownership
1) BCE
2) Rogers
3) Shaw
4) Quebecor
5) CBC/Radio Canada
- Concentration of the privately owned media has increased
- Until the 1990s media concentration involved mainly horizontal
integration – a small number of firms tried to control as much production as
- In the 99s, vertical integration – media firms sought to control
production and distribution in many fields and became media
Media Bias
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