Textbook Notes (363,137)
Canada (158,217)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA01H3 (480)
Chapter 9


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

CHAPTER 9 GLOBALIZATION, INEQUALITY, AND DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION THE CREATION OF A GLOBAL VILLAGE - In the past, too travel, you would have to meet with a travel agent to book a trip. You might have to apply for a Visa which was a tedious process. - To be able to use money in a foreign country you would have to purchase traveller`s cheques because there were no ATMs. - Nowadays, booking a travel flight is simply done over the Internet. - It is much easier to purchase things in different countries without having to convert cash to local currency, - Credit cards are worldwide. - Most countries have English speakers so its easier to communicate. THE TRIUMPHS AND TRAGEDIES OF GLOBALIZATION - People throughout the world are now linked together as never before. - Consider these facts: International telecommunication has become easy and inexpensive. Between 1982 and 2006, the number of international tourists increased by 205 percent. International trade and investment have increased rapidly. (e.g. foreign direct investment) Many more international organizations and agreements now span the globe. The Internet did not exist in 1982, but in 2006 it comprised 439 million servers connecting more than 1 billion people from around the world through email, file transfers, websites, and videoconferencing. - Globalization has transformed and improved the way we live. - However, not everyone is happy with globalization. Inequality between rich and poor countries remains staggering and increasing. Rather than spreading wealth, globalized industries and technologies may be turning the world into a more unequal place. - Critics of Globalization It may be hurting local cultures and the natural environment. Some suggest it is a form of imperialism, the economic domination of one country by another. o Anti-globalization activists believe it puts the entire world under the control of powerful commercial interests. It contributes to the homogenization of the world, the cultural domination of less powerful by more powerful countries. www.notesolution.comGLOBALIZATION GLOBALIZATION IN EVERYDAY LIFE - Everything influences everything else in a globalized world. - Barbara Garson Traced a small sum of money she invested in the Chase Manhattan Bank in the United States. o The bank lent some of her money to Caltex (a large U.S. corporation). She learned that her small investment, together with many other small investments, had huge implication for peoples everyday lives on the other side of the planet. Her money was caught up in the globalization of the world. - When we buy a commodity, we often tap into a global commodity chain, a worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity. - Until the 1970s most sports shoes were manufactured in the United States. Nike o Produces all shoes abroad today. o Manufacturing plants moved because governments eliminated many of the laws, regulations, and taxes that acted as barriers to foreign investment and trade. o It set up manufacturing plants overseas, where they could take advantage of low labour costs. o The result was a new international division of labour. U.S. and other advanced industrial countries: high-wage management, finance, design, and marketing services were more concentrated. Less developed industrializing countries: low-wage manufacturing. General Motors and General Electric are other examples. - The new international division of labour yielded high profits. Nikes employees o Poorly paid. Worked six hours a day overtime. o Reports of beatings and sexual harassments by managers were common. o Trying to form a union resulted in termination and military was brought to restore order. - When someone buys a pair of Nike athletic shoes, they insert themselves in a global commodity chain. - Sociology makes us aware of the complex web of social relations and interactions in which we are embedded. - The sociological imagination allows us to link our biography with history and social structure. THE SOURCES OF GLOBALIZATION www.notesolution.com
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