Chapter 3: Culture
Culture: is the sum of practices, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, ideologies, and
material objects that people create to deal with real life problems. Cultures enable
people to adapt to, and thrive in, their environments.
High Culture: is culture consumed mainly by upper classes (opera, ballet)
Popular/Mass Culture: Is culture consumed by all classes.
Abstraction: is the capacity to create general ideas or ways of thinking that are not
linked to particular instances.
Symbols: are things that carry a particular meaning, including the components of
language, mathematical notations, and signs. Symbols allow us to classify
experience and generalize from it.
Cooperation: is the capacity to create a complex social life by establishing
generally accepted ways of doing things and ideas about what is right and wrong.
Norms: are generally accepted ways of doing things.
Values: are ideas about what is right and wrong.
Production: is the human capacity to make and use tools. It improves our ability to
take what we want from nature.
Material Culture: comprises the tools and techniques that enable people to get
Non-Material Culture: is composed of symbols, norms, and other intangible
Folkways: are the least important norms and they evoke the least severe
Mores (Pronounced MOR-ays): are core norms that most people believe are
essential for the survival of their group or their society.
Taboos: are among the strongest norms. When someone violates a taboo It causes
revulsion in the community and punishment is severe.