CHAPTER 3: CULTURE
Origins of Culture
TOOLS IN THE HUMAN CULTURAL SURVIVAL KIT:
1) Abstraction: Capacity to create ideas or ways of thinking that allows us to classify experience and
generalize from it.
•Ideas or ways of thinking find expression in symbols: Anything that carries a particular
meaning, including the components of language, mathematical notions, and signs…
2)Cooperation : Human capacity to create complex social life by establishing:
•Norms, which are standards of behavior or generally accepted ways of doing things; and
Are three types of norms:
-Folkways: Least important norms that also evoke the least severe punishment.
-Mores (pronounced MOR-ays): Core norms that most people believe are essential for
survival of their group or their society.
-Taboos: Are among the strongest norms. When taboo violated, it causes revulsion in the
community, and punishment is severe
•Values, or ideas about what is right and wrong, good and bad, beautiful and ugly
•Non-material culture: Composed of symbols, norms, values, and other intangible elements…
3)Production : Human capacity to make and use tools, and thereby improve our ability to take what
we want from nature
•Material culture: Comprised of tools and techniques that enable people to get tasks
•**technology decreases social solidarity. People become addicted to internet, TV, AC, etc.
•All animals take from nature to subsist, and apes may sometimes use rocks to break other
objects, or walking sticks to steady themselves as they cross fast-flowing streams.
•But only humans are intelligent and agile enough to manufacture tools and use them to
produce everything from food to satellites; in this sense, production is a uniquely human