Textbook Notes (362,880)
Canada (158,081)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 19

Chapter 19.docx

2 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Sheldon Ungar

Chapter 19: Health and Medicine THE BLACK DEATH - life expectancy - The average age at death of the members of a population. HEALTH AND INEQUALITY The Social Causes of Illness and Death 1. human-environmental factors - divisions like social class, occupations, and nationality often correspond to sharp differences in the surroundings in which people work and live 2. lifestyle factors - smoking, excessive use of alcohol and drugs, poor diet, lack of exercise, and social isolation are among the chief lifestyle factors associated with poor health and premature death - social isolation, too, affects a person’s chance of becoming ill and dying prematurely - thus, unmarried people have a greater chance of dying prematurely than do married people - at any age, the death of a spouse increases a person’s chance of dying, while remarrying decreases the chance of dying - social isolation is particularly a big problem among older people who retire, lose a spouse and friends, and cannot rely on family members or state institutions for social support - such people are prone to fall into a state of depression, which contributes to health 3. factors related to the public health and health care systems - public health system - Government-run programs that ensure access to clean drinking water, basic sewage and sanitation services, and inoculation against infectious diseases. - the absence of a public health system is associated with high rates of disease and low life expectancy - health care system - Composed of a nation’s clinics, hospitals, and other facilities for ensuring health and treating illness. - the absence of a system that ensures its citizens access to a minimum standard of health care is also associated with high rates of disease and shorter life expectancy Country of Residence - infant mortality - The number of deaths before the age of one for every 1000 live births in a population in one year. Class Inequalities and Health Care - on average, people with low income die at a younger age than do people with high income - Canadians experience lower rates of sickness, improved health, and longer life expectancies at each step up the income ladder - a broad range of psychiatric conditions is associated with low socioeconomic status - poverty is also associated with high rates of tobacco and alcohol consumption, obesity, physical inactivity, and violence - why does health deteriorate as we move down the class hierarchy? 1. high stress and inability to cope with it - stress is linked with a variety of physical and mental health problems, including high blood pressure, cancer, chronic fatigue, violence, and substance abuse - many problems are more burdensome when resources like money and influence are unavailable - lower-class families endure greater crowding; poorer dwelling quality; working conditions that are more noxious, dangerous, or unpleasant; and longer hours of work to make ends meet – all of which cause stress 2. differences in the earliest stages of development that have lifelong consequences - deficiencies in nutrition during pregnancy, maternal stress, maternal smoking and misuse of drugs and alcohol, insufficient exercise, and inadequate prenatal care cause less than optimal fetal development - mothers with low income or little education are more likely to provide their children with unfavourable starts to life, and this has strong health consequences for a lifetime 3. lack of knowledge - people who are less educated and who have less exposure to educated advisers tend to have less knowledge about healthy lifestyles 4. unequal access to health resources - a disproportionately large number of poor Canadians live in areas that have inferior medical services 5. environmental exposure - poor people are more likely to be exposed to environmental risks that have had a negative impact on their health Racial Inequalities in Health Care - even when members of socially excluded groups are employed, they are more likely to continue to live in inferior areas because of racial discrimination in housing, and such area
More Less

Related notes for SOCA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.