Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCA02H3 (310)
Chapter 15

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Maggie Cummings

Sociology Chapter 15 Functional theory Offspring can learn ways of the group and eventually operate as productive adults Nuclear family is ideally suited to meet these changes -five main functions: regulated sexual activity, economic coorperation, reproduction, socialization and emotional support Polygamy expands the nuclear unit “horizontally” by adding one or more spouses, legally permitted in may less industrialized countries ofAfrica andAsia -majority of families are monogamous, cannot afford to support several wives and children extended family-nuclear family “vertically” by adding generations, such as spouse parents George Murdock study 250 mainly preliterate, foraging societies (“hunting and gathering societies”) in 1940’s Familial forms are compounded based on marriage Marriage- socially approved, presumably long-term, sexual and economic union between a man and women Two setting on which functionalist focused their attention 1) foraging societies and 2) middle class northAmerican families in the 1950’s Most men hunt and most women gather wild, edible plants Men often tend to babies and children, gender division of labour is less strict than functionalists assume Women produced up to 80% of the food Distribute game to all band members based on need Contrary to murdocks, it’s the band not the nuclear family, most efficient social organization for providing everyone with valuable food sources Not always want more children for surpose of economic security Too many children a liability Women and men often care for each other’s children In contrast to the functionalist Its band not the nuclear family that assumes responsibility for children socialization in foraging societies Functionalists missed the big picture because ignored the degree to which 1) traditional nuclear family is based on gender inequality and 2) changes in power relations between women and men have altered family structures Engles argued traditional nuclear family emerged along with the inequailities of wealth, only by controlling his wife sexually and economically, ensured man’s property Love had little to do with marriage Based on calculations intedned to maximize their families prestige, economic benefits and political advantages (arrange marriage) th Important choice of marriage partner first gained currency in 18 century England with rise of liberalism Intimated linkage between love and marriage that we know today emerged only in 20 c. th advertising industry, self-gratification on grand scale. Heterosexual romance leading to marriage 3 sets of social forces influence whom you are likely to fall in love with marry 1) potential spouses bring resources to the “marriage market”, financial assets, status, values, tastes and knowledge 2) from different groups may threaten the cohesion of one or both groups, third parties often intervene to prevent marriages outside of the group, sanctions to young people who threaten to marry outside the group. Ethnic intermarriage is becoming increasingly common in Canada 3) demographic variables, marrying inside your group increases with the group’s size and geographic concentration stand a greater chance of having to choose an appropriate mate from outside your group people tend to marry within racial, ethnic, religious and educational categories economica factors. Money issues most frequent subjects of family quarrels divorce laws influence marital satisfaction, free to end unhappy marriages and remarry, the average level of happiness increases among married people –easier for wives to divorce family life cycle- divorce rate peaks at the 5 first years of marriage then falls division of labour in the household
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