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Week 1 - Sociology II.docx

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Neda Maghbouleh

SociologyIIKalpanaKumarasalamthWeek1Jan62014Chapter 10 RaceEthnicityDefining Race and EthnicityThe Great Brain RobberyDr Samuel George Morton Philadelphia was a scientist in North America 150 years ago He collected and measured human skulls from various times and places of different races Theory He believed the bigger the brain the smarter you were Experiment shot BBsized shot into each brain recording each race and drew conclusions about the average brain size of different racesConclusion the races ranking the highest in the social hierarchy had the biggest brains vice versaWhites of European origin 1Asians 2 Native North Americans 3Blacks smallest brainMorton claimed to show that the system of social inequality in North America and the world had naturalbiological rootsDue to brain size and mental capacityracial groups are richpoor educatedilliterate and powerfulpowerlessNative North Americans and Blacks naturally rested at the bottom were justified by colonization and slaveryHowever no evidence supported Mortons ideasExample Morton measured the capacity of skulls robbed from Egypt tombs Found that the average volume of black peoples were 4 inches smaller than the average white peoples skulls This seemed to prove his case however there were certain compromises1Claimed he can differentiate the skulls of blacks and whites not possible His sorting of skulls is invalid2Mortons skulls formed a small unrepresentative sample of 72 skulls 3Mortons racial samples were incomparable with respect to gender Females71 of Negroid48 of Caucasian Biased in favour of larger white male skullsScientifically Mortons findings were meaningless BUT influential for a very long time Race Biology and Society Scientific basis about racial differences is just as shaky1Medieval Europe Aristocrats saw blue veins under their pale skin and called themselves blue bloodsPeasants did not and concluded they were racially distinct Completely ignored the fact that the colour of blood is the same for bothred 280 years ago Scholars expressed the belief that racial differences in IQ scores were genetically based1927 Peter Sandiford argued that Canada must institute selective immigrationto ensure the brightest and only the best and keep out any defectsRecruitment of British German and Danish was encouragedRejected recruitment of Polish Italian and GreeksSandiford provided IQ test results that proved Northern Europeans had mental capacityProfoundly disturbing evidenceJapanese and Chinese ancestry had the highest intelligence scores
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