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Chapter

CHPT 14 POLITICS TEXTBOOK NOTES!

16 Pages
79 Views
Winter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCA02H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

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CHAPTER 14 POLITICS
INTRODUCTION
FREE TRADE AND DEMOCRACY
A Gallup poll in 1988, showed the Liberals with a commanding 43% of the popular vote;
the Progressive Conservatives (PCs) with 31%; the New Democratic Party (NDP) with
22%.
Canadian Alliance for Trade and Job Opportunities (CATJO)
They had a campaign budget larger than that of the two opposition parties
combined.
They funded a media blitz promoting the PCs and their free trade policies.
They argued that if goods and services could be bought and sold across the
border without hindrance, and capital invested without restraint, good jobs
would proliferate and Canadas future would be assured.
Most Canadians disagreed with CATJOs rosy assessment.
54% opposed free trade; 35% supported it.
A majority of Canadians sensed that free trade might open Canada to harmful
competition with giant American companies, thus leading to job losses and
deteriorating living standards.
CATJO succeeded in overcoming some of these fears because its media campaign
hammered the pro-free-trade message into the minds of the Canadian public and drew
attention away from the opposition.
On election day, the PCs won with 43% of the popular vote
Six weeks later (January 1st, 1989) the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was
implemented.
The sole sponsor of CATJO was the Business Council on National Issues (BCNI), an
organization comprising the chief executive officers of 150 of Canadas leading
corporations.
These were people with a clear stake in free trade.
Their companies stood to benefit from increased business activity between
Canada and the U.S. and unrestricted freedom to invest wherever profits
promised to be higher.
The 1988 free trade election allowed a diverse range of Canadians to express conflicting
views and in the end, the people did get the government they elected.
However, few groups can act like CATJO and put together $18 million for a media
campaign aimed at swaying the hearts and minds of the Canadian people.
From the mid-1970s until the early 1990s, a wave of competitive elections swept across
many formerly non-democratic countries.
Genuine democracy is not based on just elections.
In addition, large classes of people must win legal protection of their rights and
freedoms for democracy to take root and grow.
www.notesolution.com
This has not yet happened in most of the world.
Some analysts believe that politics in the rich industrialized countries in less likely to be
shaped by class inequality in the future.
Others hold that the marriage of home computers and elections will allow citizens to get
more involved in politics by voting often and directly on the Internet.
WHAT IS POLITICS? KEY TERMS
Politics is a machine that determines who gets what, when and how.
Power: is the ability to control others, even against their will.
Having more power than others do, gives you the ability to get more valued
things sooner.
Having less power than others do, means you get fewer valued things later.
The use of power sometimes involves force.
e.g., one way of operating a system for distributing jobs, money, education,
and other valued things is by throwing people who do not agree with the
system in jail.
oIn this case, people obey political rules because they are afraid to
disobey.
oPeople agree with the distribution system or at least accept it
grudgingly.
For instance, most people pay their taxes without much
pressure from the CRA and pay their parking tickets
without serving jail time.
They recognize the right of their rulers to control the
political machine.
When most people basically agree with how the political machine is run, raw power
becomes authority.
Authority: is legitimate, institutionalized power.
Power is legitimate when people regard its use as morally correct or justified.
Power is institutionalized when the norms and statuses of social organizations
govern its use.
These norms and statuses define how much authority should be used, how
individuals can achieve authority, and how much authority is attached to
each status in the organization.
Max Weber described three ideal bases on which authority can rest (while stressing that
real-world cases often rested on varying mixes of the pure types):
1.Traditional Authority
Particularly in tribal and feudal societies, rulers inherit authority
through family or clan ties.
The right of a family or clan to monopolize leadership is widely believed to
derive from the will of a god.
e.g., King Louis XIV of France.
2.Legal-Rational Authority
www.notesolution.com
In modern societies, authority derives from respect for the law.
Laws specify how a person can achieve office.
People generally believe these laws are rational.
If someone achieves office by following these laws, his or her authority is
respected.
e.g., Vladimir Lenin, Bolshevik leader if the Russian Revolution of 1917.
3.Charismatic Authority
Sometimes extraordinary or charismatic individuals challenge traditional
or legal-rational authority.
Most people believe their claim of being inspired by a god or some
higher principle that transcends other forms of authority.
oOne principle is the idea that all people are created equal.
Charismatic individuals sometimes emerge during a political revolution.
Political Revolution: an attempt by many people to overthrow
existing political institutions by an opposition movement and
establishing new replacement institutions.
oThey occur when widespread and successful movements of
opposition clash with crumbling traditional or legal-rational
authority.
e.g., Stephen Harper campaigning before the 2008 Canadian federal
election.
Politics take place in all social settings including intimate face-to-face relationships,
families and universities.
Political sociology is more concerned with institutions that specialize in the exercise of
power and authority. Taken together, these institutions form the state.
State: consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a
countrys laws and public policies.
In performing these functions, the state regulates citizens in civil society.
oCivil Society: is made up of areas of social lifethe domestic
world, the economic sphere, cultural activities and political
interactionwhich are organized by private or voluntary
arrangements between individuals and groups outside the direct
control of the state.
In turn, citizens in civil society control the state to varying degrees.
In an authoritarian state, citizen control is sharply restricted.
In a totalitarian state, it is virtually non-existent.
In a democracy, citizens exert a relatively high degree of control over the state.
They do this partly by choosing representatives in regular, competitive
elections.
In modern democracies, citizens do not control the state directly.
They do so through several organizations.
Political Parties: are organizations that compete for control of
government in regular elections.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CHAPTER 14 POLITICS INTRODUCTION FREE TRADE AND DEMOCRACY A Gallup poll in 1988, showed the Liberals with a commanding 43% of the popular vote; the Progressive Conservatives (PCs) with 31%; the New Democratic Party (NDP) with 22%. Canadian Alliance for Trade and Job Opportunities (CATJO) They had a campaign budget larger than that of the two opposition parties combined. They funded a media blitz promoting the PCs and their free trade policies. They argued that if goods and services could be bought and sold across the border without hindrance, and capital invested without restraint, good jobs would proliferate and Canadas future would be assured. Most Canadians disagreed with CATJOs rosy assessment. 54% opposed free trade; 35% supported it. A majority of Canadians sensed that free trade might open Canada to harmful competition with giant American companies, thus leading to job losses and deteriorating living standards. CATJO succeeded in overcoming some of these fears because its media campaign hammered the pro-free-trade message into the minds of the Canadian public and drew attention away from the opposition. On election day, the PCs won with 43% of the popular vote Six weeks later (January 1 , 1989) the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was implemented. The sole sponsor of CATJO was the Business Council on National Issues (BCNI), an organization comprising the chief executive officers of 150 of Canadas leading corporations. These were people with a clear stake in free trade. Their companies stood to benefit from increased business activity between Canada and the U.S. and unrestricted freedom to invest wherever profits promised to be higher. The 1988 free trade election allowed a diverse range of Canadians to express conflicting views and in the end, the people did get the government they elected. However, few groups can act like CATJO and put together $18 million for a media campaign aimed at swaying the hearts and minds of the Canadian people. From the mid-1970s until the early 1990s, a wave of competitive elections swept across many formerly non-democratic countries. Genuine democracy is not based on just elections. In addition, large classes of people must win legal protection of their rights and freedoms for democracy to take root and grow. www.notesolution.com This has not yet happened in most of the world. Some analysts believe that politics in the rich industrialized countries in less likely to be shaped by class inequality in the future. Others hold that the marriage of home computers and elections will allow citizens to get more involved in politics by voting often and directly on the Internet. WHAT IS POLITICS? KEY TERMS Politics is a machine that determines who gets what, when and how. Power: is the ability to control others, even against their will. Having more power than others do, gives you the ability to get more valued things sooner. Having less power than others do, means you get fewer valued things later. The use of power sometimes involves force. e.g., one way of operating a system for distributing jobs, money, education, and other valued things is by throwing people who do not agree with the system in jail. o In this case, people obey political rules because they are afraid to disobey. o People agree with the distribution system or at least accept it grudgingly. For instance, most people pay their taxes without much pressure from the CRA and pay their parking tickets without serving jail time. They recognize the right of their rulers to control the political machine. When most people basically agree with how the political machine is run, raw power becomes authority. Authority: is legitimate, institutionalized power. Power is legitimate when people regard its use as morally correct or justified. Power is institutionalized when the norms and statuses of social organizations govern its use. These norms and statuses define how much authority should be used, how individuals can achieve authority, and how much authority is attached to each status in the organization. Max Weber described three ideal bases on which authority can rest (while stressing that real-world cases often rested on varying mixes of the pure types): 1. Traditional Authority Particularly in tribal and feudal societies, rulers inherit authority through family or clan ties. The right of a family or clan to monopolize leadership is widely believed to derive from the will of a god. e.g., King Louis XIV of France. 2. Legal-Rational Authority www.notesolution.com
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