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SOCC03H3 (2)
Chapter 1

ch.1 collective behavior.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCC03H3
Professor
Joe Hermer
Semester
Fall

Description
CH.1: WHAT IS COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR?  CB is relatively spontaneous, unstructured, extra-institutional behaviour of a fairly large number of individuals.  Extra-institutional: behavior of this type deviates from the established, normative, institutionalized patterns of everyday life  CB operates in situations where there are no or few, adequate, clear cut definition fail to determine participants’ behavior  Conventional is more inhibited, less spontaneous, less changeable and more structured, long lived and more stabled. It is structured, organized, planned, predictable, enduring, stable, institutionalized, normative, and familiar.  CB is relatively unconventional, that it violates the norm of mainstream culture  CB may arise because traditional norms are in conflict with certain desired values in a specific situation.  Conventional members participate in CB. They don’t deviate norms as they’re not threatening social order  CB is individuals acting with and in relation to one another.  Individual behaviour- someone does something uniquely on their own, without being directly influenced by others to do it, and does not talk about it with others. Parallel behaviour- done by a number of other individuals without direct influence from others. In PB each person does the same thing for the same reason but each is doing it alone, when it is engaged in the presence of others or directly influenced by others become basis for a group bond which sociologists refer to it as collective behavior  Some forms of behaviour are less influenced by the group than others. When an individual throws a brick through the window of a building then that is individual behaviour; when a thousand ppl all over the country uninfluenced by one another’s behaviour, individually and on their own throw bricks through windows that is parallel behaviour. If crowd gathers outside a gov’t building and demands reforms, begins milling about and shouting, becoming enraged that officials do not address their demands and throws through windows then it is collective behavior SETTINGS OF COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR  Gabriel Tarde’s book is called The Public and the Crowd  Public is scattered and diffuse and connected only by a common interest in a specific issue  Crowd is compact and whose members are physically together in the same place at the same time  Individuals can belong to svrl public simultaneously whereas one can belong to only one crowd at a time.  Modern age is of publics according to Tarde  Crowds are temporary gathering and there is physical proximity and crucial processes that take place in crowds do not take place in masses and publics, different types of collective behavior take place in each of these settings.  CROWDS  4 types of crowds: causal, conventional, expressive and acting. These types blend int one another, most crowds contain something of a mix of types  Casual Crowds: loosely structured, made up of ppl who just happen to be in the sme place at sme time. United solely by physical proximity and not by common interests or goals. Ex: crowd in NY Times Square- no common bond/identity, only physical location is common  Conventional Crowds: come together for a common, specific purpose such as to attend a lecture concert, movie, etc. It is normatively governed, their members observe rules that decree what is, and what is not, appropriate in such setting. Students won’t beat up professors but could become unconventional  Expressive Crowds: Gathered for a specific purpose but differ from conventional crowds in the main purpose is belonging to the crowd itself. Crowd activity for its members is an end in itself, not just a means. In conventional crowds, audience that wants to watch movie then audience is secondary or irrelevant. In EC audience wants to be a member of the crowd  Acting Crowds: engage in overt behavior like revolutions, lynchings, violent demonstrations, etc. Acting crowds are often referred to by observers who mistrust them as mobs. The act may have been planned in advance, or emerged in the crowd setting or milling process itself. Many crowds provide the settings for collectives (though most do not) just as public or diffuse collective may constitute a locus of collective behavior. PUBLICS  Spatially dispersed collectivities are often referred to as masses and publics. Masses and publics are generally defined as a large and heterogeneous number of ppl who are geographically scattered and whose attention is focused on a particular stimulus, issue or phenomenon. There is some degree of interconnectedness  The Mass: Mass was seen before as anonymous, isolated, heterogeneous individuals who have little contact with one another and who react to a given stimulus in a parallel not a collective fashion. A public was seen as scattered individuals who are focused on a given stimulus but have some contact with one another. Behavior that is dispersed takes place in clusters of grps and collectivities. Mass and publics are diffuse collectivities.  Publics vs. Crowds: in crowds there are more people. Mass and public can be thought of as a kind of immense potential audience that stands ready to react to msgs, events or stimuli. Stimuli is nearly always much larger than the typical crowd and is scattered and physically disconnected  The Mass Media: it generates masses and publics by creating large audiences who simultaneously receive the same msgs some of whom will react in similar ways. Crowd possess immediacy, masses and publics have range while crowds have density and compactness, masses and public
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