Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
Sociology (1,053)
SOCC52H3 (1)
P.Landolt (1)

A Model for Managed Migration? - Notes.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough

Abstract - SAWP: Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (Canada) - Successful practices: o Cooperation between origin and destination countries o Transparency in the admissions criteria for selection o Access to health care for temporary migrants - Generally does not adhere to the majority of best practices emerging in international forums o Recognition of migrants qualifications o Opportunities for skills transfer o Avoiding imposing forced savings schemes o Providing paths to permanent residency - Taken steps toward expansion of temporary migration – falls short! Introduction - Post- Cold War period: “new era of mobility” o Debatable – heightened regulation of movndent through managed temporary migrant worker programmes (TMWO – 2 generation programs) - SAWP existed for more than four decades, moving Caribbean or Mexicans into Canadian farms for eight months - UNESCO’s Best Practices in International Migration Project, and ILO Multilateral Framework on Labor Migration, etc. Temporary Migrant Workers in the Global Political Economy - Employer demanding for TW in high-income countries has been facilitated by states o Liberization of labor mobility, immigration policies o Policies for low-skilled occupations designed to prevent settlement and restrict mobility - Some TMWPs – o Curb illegal migration & trafficking (Germany) o Legalizing the existing populations of undocumented workers (US) - Immigration policy as part of efforts to restructure labor-capital relations within their borders – state effort against globalization, protect global position - Benefits capital – increase volume and flexibility of labor supply in only certain segments of market - Employer: provision of cheaper and vulnerable source of labor, reorganize production process for higher profit and competition (21) - State: infuse greater competition into the national labor market and change conditions under which all workers experience their jobs - TMWP have failed to regulate illegal movements, but succeeded to regularize wages, control costs of products, etc. - Labour shortages – socially created – fill jobs that citizens reject, socially least regarded jobs with worst pay or least secure o Dual labor market theory o Least likely to compete for better conditions o Risk remittances – Mexico, remittances make important contributions to the national as well as regional economies, not to mention household subsistence and income diversification strategies (22) - Canada o Number of migrant workers has swelled, particularly in agriculture and low-skill sectors (22) o 70% entering as foreign workers on temporary employment authorizations Temporary Migrant Workers and Globalized Agri-Food Markets - Agriculture with the longest history of receiving MW - Germany makes the most systematic use of TMWPs in Europe o Agriculture accounts for important share of migrants admitted - Previously migrant sending (Italy and Greece) became receivers thus Canada’s Model - Seen as model for development of labor migration programmes in other high-income countries o US: “Best practice” for legalization of agricultural workers (23) - Globally seen as leader in management of migration o Best practices concerning MW and families, sending country involvement, benefit of economic globalization, etc. The Model Programme for the Perspectives of Employers and States - Attractive for governments and employers o (i) Demand-driven programme, operating outside of quotas and caps, without limit  Once an employer proves to government they are unsuccessful in recruiting Canadian workers (ad for 14 days), they are supplied with the number of workers they request o (ii) Provides administrative support to the agricultural industry at a low cost to the Canadian state  Canadian: “resource-intensive” actually annual negotiations in which they participate  High degree of involvement by sending country government in operational aspect – invest significant resources  Other aspects undertaken by employer-driven organizations  Direct costs of the programme are borne by employers hiring migrant workers o (iii) Circumscribe the working conditions of people much greater than domestic workers – allows industry to implement practices that would not usually be possible  Constrain mobility by limiting to a single, designated employer  Employers have security in planning production  Employers have power over migrants – must comply with all requests, reticent to raise issues, etc.  No formal appeal process around repatriation – threat acts as tools of labor control o (iv) Allows employers to select workers on the basis of nationality and gender  Segment production, divide workforce that is not based on human capital  Benefits production by enabling employers to create competition between workers, among labor supply countries who vie to increase their job placements in Canada o (v) Circumscribe the profile of workers in other ways  i.e. Preference to individuals with dependents – deter visa overstay or permanent settlement (25)  Reduce social responsibilities in Canada, therefore increase willingness to accept overtime and weekend hours o (vi) Screen for health conditions (Obligatory under SAWP)  i.e. HIV or pregnancy  Allow employers to further mitigate uncertainties that employing domestic workers involve o Canadian state and employers do not have to invest in their costs of reproduction – i.e. education, pension, etc.  SAWP allowed to access the Canadian pension plan, but are marginal and many face difficulties accessing them  Allowed access to public health care, but many wait till they return home in case of being sent back if employers knew – many pressured to leave right away  Aka – gaining workers while keeping social costs down Measuring the Model’s Best Practices - UNESCO’s International Migration Best Practices Project, a set of best practices in international migration with the goal of promotin
More Less

Related notes for SOCC52H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.