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VPMA99H3 (11)
Andy Lee (11)
Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Study Guide

5 Pages
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Department
Music and Culture
Course Code
VPMA99H3
Professor
Andy Lee

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Chapter 16: The Late Eighteenth Century: Haydn and Mozart
-Mozart was a virtuoso pianist and highly efficient string player
-Haydn is a fine violinist
-both composed prolifically and excellent at reaching diverse audience
-Haydn’s growth to artistic maturity was much slower than that of Mozart
-Mozart was a child prodigy who rose quickly
-Haydn worked loyally during most of his career in the service of a noble Hungarian family
Mozart
-craved celebrity and adulation as a boy
-gave up steady job in Salzburg
-became free agent in Vienna
-traveled a great deal in his early years to England, Italy, Germany, and France
-absorbed many styles and practices current in these countries
Haydn
-found his models in local traditions around Vienna
-remained in the same job for long time
-career does not easily divide itself into distinct periods
-spent nearly 30 years at the court of Prince Paul Anton Eszterhazy and his brother Nikolaus
-ideal for the development as a composer
-filled commissions from others and traveled extensively
-Eszterhaza was located near Eisenstadt
-designed to rival splendour of the French court at Versailles
-boasted 2 theaters, one for opera and the other for puppet plays
-2 large decorated music rooms
-Haydn was required to compose whatever music the prince demanded
-conducted performances, trained, supervised all musical personnel, kept instruments in repair
-orchestra of 25 players
-opera and concert became weekly events
-prince played the baryton, instrument resembling a large viola da gamba with an extra set of
resonating metal strings
-wrote 165 pieces for baryton, trios with viola and cello
-was isolated in Eszterhaza
-kept abreast of current development of music through visitors and occasional trips to Vienna
-had double advantage, highly skilled performers and intelligent patron
-could make experiment in the orchestra, observe strength and weakness of effect
-became original because he was isolated
Haydn’s Instrumental Music
-Haydn’s style include folk, galant, empfindsmer, learned Baroque style
-introduced unexpected element
-unique combination of simplicity and sophistication
www.notesolution.com
-musical wit and humour or evocation of the sublime
-father of symphony
-did not invent the genre
-his symphonies established standard for later composers through high quality, wide
dissemination, and lasting appeal
-most were written for Prince Esterhazy’s orchestra
-1780s, 6 symphonies (82-87) was known as Paris Symphonies
-on commission for a concert series in the French capital
-last 12, the London symphonies (93-104), written in 1790s
Symphonic Form
-typically three-movement works (fast-slow-fast)
A form derived from Italian opera overture (sinfonia)
-other symphonies from early periods are in 4 movements
-all in the same key
-slow-fast-slow-fast sequence of sonata da chiesa
-I Allegro (fast sonata-form movement, often with slow introduction)
-II Andante moderatoe (slow)
-III Minuet and Trio
-IV Allegro (fast finale, usually in sonata or rondo)
-demanded most attention from audience in first movement
Symphony No. 92 in G Major, Oxford Symphony
-Haydn presented it to Oxford University when he received an honourary doctoral degree in
1791
-primary, secondary, and closing materials are stable periods
-establishment of tonic and second, closely related key
-presented in balanced four-measure phrases
-clearly set off by cadences
-string and wind ensembles present thematic ideas
-transitions and developments are unstable passages
-scored for full orchestra
-bustling rhythmic energy, sequences, modulatory twists and turns
-overlapping phrases, avoidance of cadences
Haydn’s Layout
First Movement
Exposition
-transition/ bridge modulate to dominant key or relative major minor
-loud passage with dramatic rushing figures
2nd theme
-lightly scored, melodically distinctive, harmonically stable
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 16: The Late Eighteenth Century: Haydn and Mozart -Mozart was a virtuoso pianist and highly efficient string player -Haydn is a fine violinist -both composed prolifically and excellent at reaching diverse audience -Haydns growth to artistic maturity was much slower than that of Mozart -Mozart was a child prodigy who rose quickly -Haydn worked loyally during most of his career in the service of a noble Hungarian family Mozart -craved celebrity and adulation as a boy -gave up steady job in Salzburg -became free agent in Vienna -traveled a great deal in his early years to England, Italy, Germany, and France -absorbed many styles and practices current in these countries Haydn -found his models in local traditions around Vienna -remained in the same job for long time -career does not easily divide itself into distinct periods -spent nearly 30 years at the court of Prince Paul Anton Eszterhazy and his brother Nikolaus -ideal for the development as a composer -filled commissions from others and traveled extensively -Eszterhaza was located near Eisenstadt -designed to rival splendour of the French court at Versailles -boasted 2 theaters, one for opera and the other for puppet plays -2 large decorated music rooms -Haydn was required to compose whatever music the prince demanded -conducted performances, trained, supervised all musical personnel, kept instruments in repair -orchestra of 25 players -opera and concert became weekly events -prince played the baryton, instrument resembling a large viola da gamba with an extra set of resonating metal strings -wrote 165 pieces for baryton, trios with viola and cello -was isolated in Eszterhaza -kept abreast of current development of music through visitors and occasional trips to Vienna -had double advantage, highly skilled performers and intelligent patron -could make experiment in the orchestra, observe strength and weakness of effect -became original because he was isolated Haydns Instrumental Music -Haydns style include folk, galant, empfindsmer, learned Baroque style -introduced unexpected element -unique combination of simplicity and sophistication www.notesolution.com
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