ANT100Y1 Chapter Notes -World-Systems Theory, Cash Crop, Capital Accumulation

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19 Apr 2012
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Chapter 11: The World System and Colonialism
Capitalist world economy: the single world system, which emerged in the 16th cen, committed to
production for sale, with object of maximizing profits, rather than supplying domestic needs
Capital wealth / resources invested in business, with the intent of producing a profit
The World System Theory:
o Core more powerful nations, largest capital accumulation, sophisticated technologies,
control over finance (US Germany Japan)
o Semiperiphery intermediate, exports to core and periphery nations, source of cheap labour
(Brazil, India, China)
o Periphery least powerful nations, less mechanized industries, exports raw materials and
agri commodities, source of cheap labour (Bangladesh, Haiti etc.)
Monocrop production 17th cen plantation economy based on a single cash crop
o Sugar
Industrial Revolution:
o 18th cen
o transformation from traditional modern societies thru industrialization of economy
o required capital for investment
o trade and commerce
o invested in machines and engines
o capital/scientific innovation
o began with cotton, iron, and pottery
o increase in production
o began in England
o expertise in navigation facilitated importing/exporting
o growth of Protestantism among middle class encouraged a work ethic
o poor working conditions in factories and cities, crowding, unsanitary, insufficient
water/sewage system, disease and death
Karl Marx saw socioeconomic division b/t 2 opposed classes:
o Bourgeoisie (capitalists) owners of factories, mines, farms etc. dominated key institutions
o proletariat (property-less workers) had to sell their labour to survive
o classes powerful collective forces that could mobilize human energies to influence course
of history
Imperialism:
o 19th cen, Europe imperialism in Africa, Asia and Oceania
o policy of extending the rule of a country or empire over foreign nations and of taking and
holding foreign colonies
o after 1850 transport aided in colonization of land sin north and south America and Australia
o 1st colonialism in Americans and Caribbean
o 2nd phase Europe competed for colonies b/t 1875-1914
Colonialism:
o Political social economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign
power for an extended time
o European age of discovery
British colonialism 2 phases, peak at 1914 the empire covered 1/5th of worlds surface, ruled ¼ of its
population! After WWII most colonies getting their independence back
French colonialism: 2 phases, by 1914 ruled over 60 million people; both direct and indirect rule
1914 European empires ruled more than 85% of the world
after WWII many colonies gained freedom
former colonies divided into settler, nonsettler, and mixed
settler Australia and Canada
nonsettler India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria etc. had substantial
native populations and few European settlers
mixed South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Algeria, both sizable European and native populations
intervention philosopher developing nations
Neoliberalism: revival of Adam Smiths classic economic liberalism the idea that govs should not
regulate private enterprise and that free market forces should rule a currently dominant intervention
philosophy
Keynesian economies: challenged liberalism full employment, govs /banks should intervene to
increase employment, gov should promote the common good
Neoliberalism
o Open (tariff free) international trade and investment, lower costs thru laying off workers,
lower wagers, improving productivity
1st world democratic west
second world communism former soviet union, (past) socialist countries of E Europe and Asia
third world least developed
Communism:
o Political movement and doctrine seeking to overthrow capitalism and to establish a form of
communism such as that which prevailed in the Soviet Union from 1917-1991
Only 5 communist states remain
China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, Vietnam
o All were Authoritarian promoting obedience to authority
o Many were totalitarian banning rival parties demanding total submission
o Communist authority monopolized power in every state
o Relations w/in party were strictly disciplined
o Cultivated a sense of belonging to an international movement