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Anthropology (232)
ANT100Y1 (103)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

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School
University of Toronto St. George
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Gary Coupland
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1 Language in the Global Village 1 Introductory Remarks Language has made it possible for humans to explore the world abstractly classify it evaluate it and perhaps even understand itlanguage allows us to think and plan consciously promote social relationships in a continuous fashion modify the environment creatively etc Language has made it possible for humans to enter into meaningful communication with others People have developed verbal devices and strategies to ensure the flow of communication is smooth and effortlesslearned in childhood remaining largely unconscious throughout life These devices cant always avert misunderstandings and breakdowns incommunicationMarshall McLuhan todays global villagea world where instant communication among people of diff backgrounds is made possible through mass telecommunications technologies Intercultural Communication IC can alter the nature of traditional languages and cultures Communication in the global village today is largely koinbased global koin is English Some widespread languages function as regional koinModern Standard Arabic is now the koin of the Arabic world Russian for the countries of the former USSR Spanish is the official language of most Latin American countries2 Intercultural CommunicationICthe exchange of verbal messages spoken or written between individuals from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds by means of a common language ex the use of koinsVarious forms of multilingual communication several languages used and mixed in different ways to communicate are used for IC koin is an example of it There can sometimes be difference in meaning of the word inappropriate random meanings due to a lack of knowledge of the whole range of possible meaningsfor example affair 1 Something done or to be done ex Get your affairs in order2 Professional or public transaction ex affairs of state 3 Social occurrence or event ex Their wedding was a big affair4 Romantic of sexual relationship ex Theirs was a steamy affair Linguistic calque can occur when theres accidentalinnocent miscommunication due to a lack of knowledge of the range of meanings Cognates are an example of calquescognates are words in different languages that have the same origin they may have the same meaning in different languagesdont always have the same meaning though ex librarybiblioteca in Italian and libreria in ItalianbookstoreAn example of a deceptive ItalianEnglish cognateEnglish wordbrave Italian cognatebravo Italian meaninggood Appropriate Italiancoraggioso more examples on page 521 Interference Linguistic borrowing calquing and other language mixing phenomena have been significant factors in bringing about change and even in generating new forms of language Pidgin and Creole tongues emerged to make comm possible between two or more groups that speak different languagesex Melanesian Pidgin English and Haitian Creole based on French
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