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ANT200Y1 (17)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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Michael Chazan

Chapter 3 Early HomininsHomininsmembers of the human lineage after its split from the chimpanzee lineage31 The Fossil RecordSahelanthropus tchadensis and Ardipithecus ramidusthe earliestknown members of the hominin lineageSahelanthopus found in Chad 7 million years agoArdipithecus 45 million years ago site of Aramis in Ethiopia share some characteristics of chimps too The Early Hominin RadiationRadiationperiod when theres a rapid increase in the number of species in a single lineage Hominin radiation occurred 42 mya when there was an explosion in the diversity of hominin speciesincluded 3 distinct genera Kenyanthropus Australopithecus and Paranthropus all adapted to walking upright bipedalism lacked pronounced canines thoughWithin the hominin lineage bipedalism and losing large canines preceded increase in brain sizeHomo habilisearliest known member of the genus Homolacked heavy chewing muscles and large teeth remarkable brain sizeHomo erectusfirst member of the hominin lineage to spread out of Africa GENUS or SPECIES DATE BRAIN SIZE CHARACTERISTICS FOUND IN Australopithecus 3525 mya 450475 cc Bipedal East West and South Africa Kenyanthropus 35 mya 450475 cc Similar to Aust East Africa Paranthropus 2514 mya 450475 cc Massive molars and East and South chewing muscles Africa Homo habilis 2516 mya 500800 cc Increased brain size East and South Africa Homo erectus19 m45000 ya 7501250 cc Further increase in brain Africa Asia and size dispersal out of Africa Europe 32 Setting the SceneEarly hominins only left stone tools and bones behind discarded as they moved around stone tools belong to the Lower PaleolithicEarly Stone Age includes Oldowan and Acheulian East African Rift Valleygeological feature stretching from Southeast Africa to the Middle East and is the location of many important hominin sitesThe East African Rift ValleyLike an enormous trough 3 characteristics makes it invaluable for finding early hominin sites 1 Filling up with sediments and is thus a depositional environment that preserves sites 2 Tectonically active so it is constantly eroding result is the formation of badlands landscapes in which enormous deposits of earth are cut by gullies and ravines 3 Volcanically active levels of volcanic ash that can be dated using argon method
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