[BIO120] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (417 pages long)

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2 Dec 2016
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1. Cell and Genome
Cell is defined as the basic unit of life. All things in this world are made up
of cells that are enclosed by a membrane having internal material
composed of chemical compositions. Internal chemical composition of cell
is aqueous in nature and has the ability to divide in copies by growing.
Cell Biology is study of functions and structure of the cell. It describes that
cell is the basic unit of life and the related study of cell is called as
Cytology.
Molecular Biology is the science that concerns with the internal
biological activities of cell at molecular level.
Chromosomes are present inside the nucleus of the cell and have the
ability to control heredity features as it is made up of heredity material.
Chromosomes are made up of two chromatids that are being attached with
the centromere in each and every cell.
Figure1.1: Chromosome with its chromatids
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Heredity is central to life and it is the phenomenon of passing of
characteristics and traits from parents to kids. Proteins, DNA and RNA are
required for processing heredity.
Hereditary Material is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that is present in all
living cells including humans and other organisms. Interestingly, in a
human the entire cells contain same DNA (hereditary material). All of the
cells living on earth do store their information in DNA molecules the double
stranded hereditary material.
Building Blocks of DNA are simple subunits consists of nucleotides,
sugar-phosphate with one of the nitrogen side molecule and a base.
Structure of DNA is formed by paired, long and un-branched chains. All type
of chains contains four same monomers. The single strand DNA nucleotides
join with another strand by sugar-phosphate and develop into double stranded
DNA. Here sugar-phosphate acts as backbone of strands and it is of
asymmetric nature.
Monomers or Bases are nucleotide compounds made up of chemical
combinations and these nucleotides encode genetic information by having
long linear sequencing. These nucleotides are Adenine-A, Thymine-T,
Guanine-G and Cytosine-C.
Polymerization is a chemical reaction having two or more smaller
molecules that combine to form repeating molecule structures that
originates from the basic original molecule. It is also called as replication
as one fundamental unit replicates here into longer chains. Monomers
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