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Canada (161,498)
Biology (600)
BIO120H1 (305)
Chapter 4

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James Thomson

Chapter 4Variation in the Environment Climate Water and Soil 6166 A 6770 B 7075 C 7578 A 7984 CThere are some broadly defined patterns that shape climate zones they are the intensity of solar radiation across different areas most intense at equator weaker closer to poles when the sun it as itspeak the warming effect is the greatest wind and ocean currents mountainzenith ranges positions of continents cause finer changes rotation of Earth on its axis causes night and day the revolution of the moon causes 28 tidal cycles the revolution of the Earth around the sun causes seasonal cycles The Earth is tilted 235 on its axis This means that the Northern Hemisphere receives more intense solar radiation during the northern summer and less during the northern winter This tilt also means that the solar equator area lying directly below suns zenith varies seasonally it is st235N on June 21 and 235S on December 21 The Northern Hemisphere has less ocean area meaning it has more temperature variance between seasons At a given temperature liquid water has a tendency to evaporate and water vapor has a tendency to condense back to liquid water When these two tendencies are in equilibrium it is called the equilibrium water vapor pressure Equilibrium water vapor pressure increases with temperature meaning warmer air can hold more water vapour When the EWVP is exceeded and the temperature of the air decreases rapidly the vapor will condense to liquid water and fall as rain or snow Hadley cells warm air expands and becomes less dense causing it so rise Equally as it warms its EWVP increases Solar radiation is the most intense at the equator so air here will warm and move in an upward convection current As this air reaches the upper regions of the atmosphere 1015 km overhead it spreads North and South This air is replaced from below forming the trade winds The risen air will cool under the lower pressure of the upper atmosphere and also release heat into space A
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