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Department
Biology
Course
BIO220H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Evolution and the origins of disease - Discomforting conditions (i.e. pain, fever, cough, etc.) are not diseases; but rather are evolved defenses - The body undergoes trade-offs between a trait’s benefits and costs - Things like coughing are important (i.e. must be able to cough out foreign particles which could cause harm to the body) - Things like pain are also necessary (i.e. if you cannot feel pain, you might continue to do something that is damaging to your body, which eventually leads to tissue damage or infections) - Having a severe response with no real threat is better than NOT having a severe response with a REAL threat (minor inconvenience is a lesser cost than the cost of death) - Every “disease” or “illness” is beneficial to us in some way (mainly for the fact that it leads to reduced death in the long-run in comparison to other individuals that do not have them) - When humans take medicines to remedy their sicknesses, they are actually creating a disservice to their body; (i.e. remain sick for longer, or for pregnant women  less morning sickness/nausea = more miscarriages due to the defensive nausea preventing them from eating toxic foods) - Smoke alarm principle: many false alarms (i.e. when toast burns), but that cost is significantly less than if the alarm did not go off when there was a real fire Conflicts with other organisms - Pathogens can adapt to every chemical that researchers develop - Bacteria that adapt to antibiotics can even spread their genes to other non-related bacterium - Human-to-human interaction is more harmful than human-to-predator or human-to- diseases due to the fact that we are attacking each other not for food, but rather mating purposes and
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