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pg.1-8, 14-16.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Harris

12-09-09 3:24 PM Pg. 1-8 Cells and Genomes The Universal features of cells on Earth There are many species today that contain various different genes Each species is different and the progeny of the species is also different Heredity determines that an offspring is similar to the parent but not exactly the same An egg can determine if an organism is singled or multicellular All cells store their Hereditary Information in the same linear chemical code (DNA) Living cells are similar to computers storing information Living organisms store information in DNA DNA is made from A, T, C, and G They are put together and encode genetic information Scientists now can read DNA All cells replicate their hereditary information by template polymerization Monomer of a DNA strand is called a nucleotide Nucleotides contain: sugar (deoxyribose), base (A, T, C, G) and a phosphate group Sugar based backbone A-T: two bonds C-G: three bonds Creates a spiral shape Bonds between base pairs are weak compared to sugar phosphate bonds DNA strands can be pulled apart through DNA replication without sugar phosphate breaking All cells transcribe of their hereditary information into the same intermediary form (RNA) DNA must also express itself through transcription DNA sequences are used as template for RNA Translation involves using RNA RNA uses uracil instead of thymine Messenger RNA is used to guide proteins RNA are single stranded and flexible RNA molecules can fold up in certain ways due to weak bonds All cells use proteins as catalysts Proteins are long unbranched polymers Amino acids are monomers of proteins There are 20 types and they are built with by attaching amino groups The proteins then come together and form ploy peptides Amino acid polymers can also catalyze enzymes All cells translate RNA into a protein the same way Codon: Triplet of RNA molecules There are 64 possible codons (4*4*4) The codons are read but tRNA Each tRNA has an anticodon that attaches to the codon rRNA helps hold on to the mRNA during this process The fragment of genetic information corresponding to one protein is one gene DNA is extremely complex and one segment represent a gene Only a segment is used for encoding RNA Life requires energy Free energy is needed to capture the information for DNA It is needed to break and form bonds Pg. 14-16
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