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Chapter 8

Chemistry Review Chapter 8.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
James Thomson

Chemistry Review CHAPTER 8Electron Config the distribution of es within the lvls and sublvls of its atoms Characteristics of ManyElectron Atoms Schod equation doesnt not give exact solutions for the energy levels of manyelectron atoms only HBUT unlike Bohr model gives excellent approximate solutions e SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER ms n l and ml describe size energy shape and orientation of an atomic orbitalLAST ONEspin property of the e and not the orbital e passing thru a nonuniform mag field splits into 2 beams because each of an atoms e has 2 possible values of spinattracted repelled by magnetic field H splits because es has one of 2 possible values of spins Each e in an atom is described completely by a set of 2 quantum s first 3 describe its orbital fourth describes its spinEXCLUSION PRINCIPLE PAULINo 2 es in the same atom can have the same 4 quantum sHeground dadsame QN as e in H Hes 1s orbital is filled and es have paired spinsSecond HE e occupies same orbital but has opposite spinMAJ CONSEQUENCE an atomic orbital can hold a maxof 2 es and they must have opposing spinsHe beam doesnt split because have both spinsELECTROSTATIC EFFECTSEN LVL SPLITTINGSAttraction of opposite chargesrepulsion of like chargesEnergy states of manyelectron atoms are also affected by ee repulsion not just attraction between ne like in H energy state determined by n valueEnergy lvl splitting first is LiAdditional interactions give rise to the splitting of energy levels into sublevels of different energies the energy of an orbital in a manye atom depends mostly on tits n value size and to a lesser extent on its l value shape Energy differences arises from 3 factors NUCLEAR ATTRACTIONe REPULSIONSORBITAL SHAPESHEILDINGPENETRATION except in HMore energy is needed to remove an e from a more stable lower energy sublevel than from a less stable higher energy sublevel Effect of Nuclear Charge Z on Sublevel energyHigher chargesstronger interaction 1H 2He 3Li most stable A higher nuclear charge increases ne attractions THUS lowers sublevel energy stabilizes
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