Chapter 1: Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
1.1 – Approaching Chemistry: Experimentation
- Chemistry: the study of the composition, properties, and transformations of matter.
- Theory: determined when the results of an experiment become consistent.
o Experiments are done to make a hypothesis.
o The hypothesis can be used to perform more experiments, which in turn can help to
o Only represents the best explanation at the time.
1.2 – Chemistry and the Elements
- All matter is made of the currently present 114 elements found.
- Element: fundamental substance that cannot be chemically broken down into anything simpler.
o Only 90 of the elements occur naturally; the others are made artificially using high-
energy particle accelerators.
1.3 – Elements and the Periodic Table
- Conclusions were drawn using the similarities between elements.
o Johann Döbereiner observed that there were many triads, or groups of three elements,
which had similar behaviors.
- Periods: horizontal rows of elements.
- Groups: vertical columns of elements which have similar chemical properties.
o Numbered 1-18 from left to right.
o There are actually 32 groups, but the lanthanides and the actinides are pulled out and
o Not all groups have the same number of elements…
Main groups: the two larger groups on the left, and the six larger groups on the
right of the periodic table (life is based on many of these elements).
Transitional metal groups: the ten smaller groups in the middle of the table.
Inner transitional metal groups: the 14 groups that are pulled out and shown
separately. 1.4 – Some Chemical Properties of the Elements
- Property: characteristic which describes or identifies matter.
o Eg) Volume, amount, odor, colour, temperature, etc.
o Can be either intensive or extensive, depending on whether the property changes with
the amount of the sample.
Intensive: do not depend on the amount of the sample (temperature).
Extensive: depend on the amount of the sample (length or volume).
o Can also be either physical or chemical, depending on whether the property changes the
chemical makeup of the substance.
Physical: does not change the chemical makeup of the substance (colour).
Chemical: changes the chemical makeup of the substance (combustion).
- Elements within the same group have similar chemical properties…
o Group 1A – Alkali metals:
Soft, silvery metals.
React quickly and violently with water to produce basic or alkaline substances.
Highly reactive, therefore is never found in nature in a pure state, but in
combination with other elements.
Hydrogen is different than these metals.
o Group 2A – Alkaline earth metals:
Lustrous, silvery metals.
Less reactive, but are never found in a pure state.
o Group 7A – Halogens:
Colourful, corrosive non-metals.
Only found in combination with other elements in nature.
o Group 8A – Noble gases:
Colourless gases. Very little reactivity, and combine with very few to no other elements.
- Elements are also grouped into three categories.
Largest category and are found on the left, bounded by the zigzag running from
Boron to Astatine.
All metals except for mercury are solids at room temperature.
Many have a silvery shine.
Generally malleable, conductors of electricity, and ductile.
Except for hydrogen, they are found on the right side of the periodic table
11/17 are gases, Bromine is a liquid, and five are solids at room temperature.
None are silvery, and many are brightly coloured.
Solid non-metals are brittle, and are poor conductors.
Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and astatine.
Have properties of both metals and non-metals.
Many are silvery, and are solids, but are poor conductors.
1.5 – Experimentation and Measurement
- Science uses the International System of Units (SI) for measurement.
- Numbers are written in scientific notation using exponential form. Some Prefixes for Multiples of SI Units
Factor Prefix Symbol Example
1,000,000,000 = 10 9 Giga G 1 Gm = 10 m
1,000,000 = 10 6 Mega M 1 Mm = 10 m6
1,000 = 10 Kilo k 1 kg = 10 g
100 = 10 2 Hecto h 1 hg = 100g
10 = 10 Deka da 1 dag = 10 g
0.1 = 10-1 Deci d 1 dm = 0.1 m