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Chapter 1

McMurry and Fay Chemistry Chapter 1 This is a summary of Chapter 1 of the McMurry and Fay textbook that is required for the course. Great for studying for tests!

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C.Scott Browning

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Chapter 1: Chemistry: Matter and Measurement 1.1 – Approaching Chemistry: Experimentation - Chemistry: the study of the composition, properties, and transformations of matter. - Theory: determined when the results of an experiment become consistent. o Experiments are done to make a hypothesis. o The hypothesis can be used to perform more experiments, which in turn can help to make conclusions. o Only represents the best explanation at the time. 1.2 – Chemistry and the Elements - All matter is made of the currently present 114 elements found. - Element: fundamental substance that cannot be chemically broken down into anything simpler. o Only 90 of the elements occur naturally; the others are made artificially using high- energy particle accelerators. 1.3 – Elements and the Periodic Table - Conclusions were drawn using the similarities between elements. o Johann Döbereiner observed that there were many triads, or groups of three elements, which had similar behaviors. - Periods: horizontal rows of elements. - Groups: vertical columns of elements which have similar chemical properties. o Numbered 1-18 from left to right. o There are actually 32 groups, but the lanthanides and the actinides are pulled out and not numbered. o Not all groups have the same number of elements…  Main groups: the two larger groups on the left, and the six larger groups on the right of the periodic table (life is based on many of these elements).  Transitional metal groups: the ten smaller groups in the middle of the table.  Inner transitional metal groups: the 14 groups that are pulled out and shown separately. 1.4 – Some Chemical Properties of the Elements - Property: characteristic which describes or identifies matter. o Eg) Volume, amount, odor, colour, temperature, etc. o Can be either intensive or extensive, depending on whether the property changes with the amount of the sample.  Intensive: do not depend on the amount of the sample (temperature).  Extensive: depend on the amount of the sample (length or volume). o Can also be either physical or chemical, depending on whether the property changes the chemical makeup of the substance.  Physical: does not change the chemical makeup of the substance (colour).  Chemical: changes the chemical makeup of the substance (combustion). - Elements within the same group have similar chemical properties… o Group 1A – Alkali metals:  Soft, silvery metals.  React quickly and violently with water to produce basic or alkaline substances.  Highly reactive, therefore is never found in nature in a pure state, but in combination with other elements.  Hydrogen is different than these metals. o Group 2A – Alkaline earth metals:  Lustrous, silvery metals.  Less reactive, but are never found in a pure state. o Group 7A – Halogens:  Colourful, corrosive non-metals.  Only found in combination with other elements in nature. o Group 8A – Noble gases:  Colourless gases.  Very little reactivity, and combine with very few to no other elements. - Elements are also grouped into three categories. o Metals:  Largest category and are found on the left, bounded by the zigzag running from Boron to Astatine.  All metals except for mercury are solids at room temperature.  Many have a silvery shine.  Generally malleable, conductors of electricity, and ductile. o Non-metals:  Except for hydrogen, they are found on the right side of the periodic table  11/17 are gases, Bromine is a liquid, and five are solids at room temperature.  None are silvery, and many are brightly coloured.  Solid non-metals are brittle, and are poor conductors. o Semi-metals:  Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and astatine.  Have properties of both metals and non-metals.  Many are silvery, and are solids, but are poor conductors. 1.5 – Experimentation and Measurement - Science uses the International System of Units (SI) for measurement. - Numbers are written in scientific notation using exponential form. Some Prefixes for Multiples of SI Units Factor Prefix Symbol Example 1,000,000,000 = 10 9 Giga G 1 Gm = 10 m 1,000,000 = 10 6 Mega M 1 Mm = 10 m6 3 3 1,000 = 10 Kilo k 1 kg = 10 g 100 = 10 2 Hecto h 1 hg = 100g 1 10 = 10 Deka da 1 dag = 10 g 0.1 = 10-1 Deci d 1 dm = 0.1 m
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