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Chapter 7

Chemistry - Chapter 7

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University of Toronto St. George
C.Scott Browning

CHM139H1F Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 6 Edition Fall 2012 Silberberg Chapter7–QuantumTheoryandAtomic Structure 7.1 – The Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light ο‚· Wave model explained rainbows, glasses; but did not explain the observations on atomic scale 8 ο‚· 𝑐 = πœˆπœ† Ξ½ = frequency, (hz) Ξ» = wavelength (m) c = speed of light (3.00Γ—10 m/s) ο‚· As frequency increases, wavelength decreases – Vice Versa ο‚· Amplitude – the intensity of the radiation; brightness in the case of visible light ο‚· Frequency = color of light, amplitude = brightness of light ο‚· All waves in the electromagnetic spectrum travel at the same speed through vacuum, but differ by wavelength ο‚· Speed of light changes depending on the medium it passes through [refraction] ο‚· White light separates into its components when it passes through a refracting object (e.g: prism) ο‚· Diamond sparkles because it disperses the light ο‚· Particle like a pebble does not refract ο‚· When light the edge of an object, it diffracts, and bends around it ο‚· When you throw a bunch of particles at a small opening, some of the particles go through, some reflect back ο‚· Waves can be in phase or out of phase, and have constructive/destructive interference Black Body Radiation ο‚· When black objects are heated, they emit light (e.g.: Coal) ο‚· As the temperature of the heated object increases, the light becomes brighter and exhibit a shorter wavelength β€² ο‚· 𝐸 = π‘›β„Žπœˆ 𝑛 = π‘π‘œπ‘ π‘–π‘‘π‘–π‘£π‘’ π‘–π‘›π‘‘π‘’π‘”π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘„π‘’π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘π‘’π‘š # β„Ž = π‘π‘™π‘Žπ‘›π‘π‘˜ 𝑠 π‘π‘œπ‘›π‘ π‘‘π‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ π½π‘œπ‘’π‘™π‘’ π‘†π‘’π‘π‘œπ‘›π‘‘π‘  ) 𝜈 = π‘“π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘žπ‘’π‘’π‘›π‘π‘¦ 𝐻𝑧 𝐸 = πΈπ‘›π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘”π‘¦ (π½π‘œπ‘’π‘™π‘’π‘ ) ο‚· The object only emits certain discrete quantities of energy, (admitted from the atoms) ο‚· The energy of an atom is quantized it occurs at fixed quantities, not just continuous ο‚· Change in atom’s energy occurs when the atom absorbs or emits quanta of energy ο‚· The energy of the absorbed/released radiation is equal to the change in atom’s energy The Photoelectric Effect ο‚· When single coloured light of a sufficient frequency hits a metal plate, a current flows ο‚· Light itself is a quantized amount of energy (photon). The photon of energy is absorbed by the metal, and this causes a release of electron. ο‚· The brightness of light determines the strength of the current – dim light means fewer electrons break free per unit of time CHM139H1F Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 6 Edition Fall 2012 Silberberg 7.2 – Atomic Spectra Line Spectra and the Rydberg Equation ο‚· Light from electrically excited gaseous atoms pass through a slit, and refracted by a prism, produces line spectrum, not a full continuous spectrum ο‚· Rydberg used data to develop the Rydberg equation which predicts the position and wavelength of any line in a given series The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom ο‚· The Hydrogen Atom has only certain energy levels (Stationary States) ο‚· The atom does n
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