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CHM136H1 (168)
Chapter 1-4

Chapter 1 -4, 9

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHM136H1
Professor
Browning, Chin
Semester
Winter

Description
CHM138 Term Test 1 Notes Chapter 1 Electron Configuration Rules: Aufbau Principle: lowest-energy orbitals fill up first. The addition of an electron is always placed on the lowest possible energy orbital. Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two electrons in a same atom have identical electron configuration. Electrons spins in opposite orientation, and . Hunds rule: Electron always half-fill all the orbitals in a energy level before fully fill the orbitals. Hybridization: 3 Carbon: sp , tetravalent (tetrahedral structre), 109.5 sp , trivalent (trigonal planar), 1 p orbital, 120 sp, linear, 2 p orbitals, 180 Carbocation: sp , no lone pair, valence electron: 3 Carboanion: sp , 1 lone pair, valence electron: 5 Heteroatoms: Nitrogen: sp , trivalent, 1 lone pair, 109.5 Oxygen: sp , divalent, 2 lone pair, 109.5 3 Sulfur: sp , divalent, 2 lone pair, 109.5 Phosphorous: sp , tetravalent * could have hybridization involving d orbitals, and also expand octect valence **Note: Any heteroatom next to a sp 2 hybridized carbon is also sp 2 hybridized. Types of Bonding: n Single (sigma)bond: hybridized sp bonds overlap Double bond: hybridized sp bond + 1 pi bond Triple bond: sigma bond +2 pi bonds Chemical Formula To Actual Compound Structure Saturated form general formula: C H n 2n+2 Degree of Unsaturation: (Saturated # of Hydrogen Actual # of Hydrogen)2 Happens when double bonds and ring structures appear in molecules Degree of Unsaturation 1 when double bonds or ring appears. It is true regardless of whether the molecule is pure hydrocarbon or not. Drawing All Possible Arrangements: 1. Create constitutional isomers Ex. Propane to isopropane, butane to sec, iso or tert-butane 2. Make rings if # of carbon is sufficient 3. Make double bonds or make rings to satisfy the degree of unsaturation. 4. Break up the long substituent chains or build longer substituent chains Ex. Ethyl chain break down to 2 methyl chains, hexane becomes 2,3-dimethyl butane 5. Switch the location of substituent chains 6. Create cis or trans or E, Z stereoisomers www.notesolution.com
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