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Chemistry 12 Notes Overview.pdf

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Chem 11 Study Guide SCH3UUnit 1DefinitionsSATP Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure100kpa and 25 degrees CSTP Standard Temperature and Pressure 101325kp and 0 deg CIUPAC Intnl Union of Pure and Applied Chem approves makes chem names symbols etcRepresentative Elements an element in any of groups 121318Transition Metal element of groups 312Energy level a space with definite and fixed energy in which an electron is allowed to moveOrbit circularspherical path in which the electron can move around the nucleusElectron Cloud the region of an atom in which there is a probability that an electron existsQuantum Mechanics theory of the atom in which electrons are described in terms of their energiesprobability patterns model looks like smoke around a circlePrincipal Quantumn from 2n2 formula for maxe per levelspecifying the theoretical energy lvl of an elctron in the atomAvg Atomic Mass weighted avg of masses of an atoms isotopesIsotope atoms with sameof protons but diffof neutronsIsotopic Abundanceof an isotope in a sample of an elementNuclear Charge positive charge on nucleusof protonsatomic numberPosition of Outermost Orbital dist Btwn nucleus and valence e increases down cuz more lvls outweigh nuc charge decreases across cuz sameo lvls more nuc charge pulls elecs inShielding Effect extent to which elecs in inner orbits affect bonding of valence elecsAtomic radius size o atom picometrs increases down cuz more levels outweigh nuc charge increases to the left cuz of less nuc charge for same number of lvlsIonic Radius radius as an atom becomes an ion decreases since an element has one fewer energy level as it becomes a positive ion loses electrons increases downwards cuz more energy lvls to begin with even after losing increases to theleft cuz of less nuclear charge yet same number of lvlsIonization Energy amount of energy it takes to remove an electron from atomion st nd ndin gas state 1farthest elec 22 farthest etc increases upwards requires more energyis harder cuz less lvls less shielding effectdoes NOT stop nuc charge making it harder and increases to right cuz more nuc charge no increase in lvls shielding effectelectrons pulled closer and made HARDER to remove Electronegativity number that describe the relative ability of an atom when bonded to attract electrons increases upwards cuz lessshielding effect and increases to right cuz less shielding effect1Electron Affiniy the enrgy change that occurs when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state same as ionization energyReactivity how reactive the element is metalsincreases down and to left cuz shielding elec block nuc charge making elecs easier to remove so closer to losing enough to get an empty valence shell Nonmetalsincreases up cuz less nuclear charge increases to right cuz more elecs but no increase in shielding effect so closer to achieving full valence shellIntramolecular Forces the attractive forces between atoms and ions WITHIN a compoundIntermolecular forces the attractive forces BETWEEN molecules Ionic Compounds Properties high melting point solids at SATP electrolyte strong bond crystal latticeCovalent Compounds Properites low melting point liquidgas at SATP dont conductform electrolytes flexibleExcited State any state other than ground stateGround State lowest allowed energy state of an atommoleculeionCatalystsubstance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without undergoing permanent change itself does not get consumedchangedNotesDiagnostic test for an ionic compound check if it dissolves and becomes an electrolyteAnything above and below any horizontal line segment of staircase is metalloid except obvious AluminumVSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion TheoryREMEMBER THE FOLLOWING RULESElectron pairs repel one another and molecules will adjust their shape so that the electron pairs are as far apart as possibleElectron pairs around the CENTRAL ATOM ONLY both bonded and lone influence the molecular shape So rmr this one in particular If its not near the central its NOT countedLone pairs and bonded repel each other and themselvesSHAPES FOR VSEPRTetrahedral 4 bond sites 0 lone pairs 109 degree angle ie CH4 behind sticking out each line in general tho is a bond site 2
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