Feb. 11, 2013
Sport and warfare
journey from childhood to adulthood.. sequence of initiation.
girl set aside toys, doll, get married, have children.
boy invovled progression to age categories and education was the way this transition was achieved.
from beignning, 4th C BC, particular hellnisitc.. more formalized nature and period, being a youth took
on greater importance. stages of initiation from threshold to another threshold. segregation… separate
out from normal life and challenge them. and break down indetity they have and form new identity and
re socialize back into larger society. new role . associated with greek hereos. meeting out wilderness,
heroes, shepherds hunters wondering around, accumulate experience and live in various enemies and
have fridns and earn their way back home nad restored to rightful palce.
- heracles, ason, etc.
xenophon 5ht C liked hunting and horses… heroic Cheiron* spent time with heroes teaching them how
to hunt and how to do heroic things* heroci thing is the theme*
list of different names: theese who are perfect through care.
be greek and keep hellas safe and secure. and of course heroes set the standards and everyone followed
plato described ideal state needed to train everyone in military and exercise it particularly young men
and atheletic were key method of physical and mental readiness.
he notes that he is conservatives and overly harsh with laws. this is philosophical exercise.
this was an ideal state. (slide)
tehre are number of things…. that’s interesting… practices today through plato's law… mock warfares
and using non lethal weapons.
using ahteltecs togethere sare condiered equal valuing citizens. how they need to be controlled but
elder statesmen.. 'law giver'
also, game serve purpose beyond physical fitness. they are viewed as war trainig. trainig in cunning,
strategy and technique and also training in sacrifice and training satate above yourself*
because atheltes can have selfish motives but aheiving victory for own glory…. soliders are doing it for
glory of state* for their state*
there are nice indication of methods of training particularly in combat sports. use lighter weight boxing
himantes to protect their hands but not do too much damange. or sometimes used dummie.s
speaker advocate war games just like gymnasium trainig.
famous trainig system was the SPARTAN system called the AGOGE** term agoge wasn’t used in classicla
spartans. this term was used morein roman period after system was revied. romans really liked sparta.*
and sparta itself became tourist desitnation.. watch admire ancient society and acting out their
all partan citiens except for the sons of kings unders age of 30 put through three level of training
through supervision of the padiomonos.*
youngest stage group was paides (7-13) paidiskoi (14-19) hebontes (20-29)**
systmem to summarize…. system characteristzed by harsh training particularly boys out into wild…
treatedharshly… this trainig intensified through middle age group presented to SYSSITIA-mass hall where older citizens
gathered and supervized younger boys and socialization closely. it was the padiskoi where most
famously was each member of each age group attached to older citizens in what was called the
paderastic relationship* iniation ritual border between homosexual relationship with older and younger
men and also friendship (blurry) this was the age group that took place.
The hebontes reach age 20, officially joined syssitia and allowed to marry. not still senior citizens but
recognized as men and start family. controversy of mass hall of syssitia is that they eat together… and
sleep together (military styled?) but mpermitted to marry suggest that they had own households and
mass halls were daytime meeting* headquarters of the day time.
another famous point in the education system is when boys were put through trial 11 years old… steal
meat altar of ARTEMIS ORTHIA* tyep of artemis worshiped in center of sparta. test first of all was to
sneak in and steal meat. if they were spoted, they wwere flogged but ppl who were guarding it.
beating started and enduring the flogging was the 2nd test. this was the harsh aura… little boys forced
and being socialized to willingly put themselves in to this test. cunning and endurance to get through
trial you were able to progress to the military training.
obsession with pain* but willingness to endure pain to prove your worth was common*
Xen (slide) in sparta, everyone would be ashamed to have coward* being brace and skilledat warfare..
participate in musicla events in the city and your status as a citizen bound up in one package.
other states had a EPHEBOI (ephebes) stage of life called EPHEBEIA. most famous example athenes 4th C.
aristotle describes this in his Athenaion politeia. (slide)
munichia (outside attica). 2 athelteic trainig picked and teach drill as heavy arm soliders and both use
sling nad javelin. diciplinry one drachma…
it takes only 2 years (less time thaem spartan) organized by own family members, mebers of tribe
organie it and appoint teachesrs and supervisors out of their own memebrs.
the ephebes had special outfit/uniform called CHLAMYS (cape or cloack)** basically a rectangular
shaped blanket fastened over a FIBULA* a giant safety pin. and also wore PETASOS (borad ward pelt hat)
worse by fighters. this outfit was a uniform of Hermes* depicted in in… outdoor working traveling
many depictions men wearing depict nude… emphasis heroic qualities*
famous lion hunt (slide)* depicts the hunter with the chalmys and petasos. also bye calvary men*
because its short. often you see calvary men decpited with the sme outfit.
athenian ephbes reorganized 4th C by LYCURGUS (390-325) BC. he rose to particular prominanece after
battle of CHAERONEA 338 BC philip 2 won huge vicotry over greek state organized under ahteina
there is a text of decreee issued an honorific decree for Lycurgus* (oath of loyality) for epheboi to swear
an oath. (slide) ex. leocrates sowre but didn’t fulfil it. lycurgus praised for reorgnzied athens finaical
instiuttion particularly war treasury. ephebea stands out in the financial organizeation.
hostile to macedonia and suspicious to sparta. leocrates thought to be prospartan… lycurgus wanted
phsycia lsecurity from outwarly attack and ephbeoi was his solution*
list of ephebs of various tribes permits figure of numbersof ephebes. 334 first organized, ithere were
450-500 Ephebes. 320 600 ephebes and even went higer but after 305 the epehpboi was made not
compulsory… meaning you didn’t have to do it and in 282, leanth of seice was reduced to 1 year from 2. ephbeoi noble youth as marker of their status. no longer carried se