jan 28, 2013
atheltics pt. 1
- jumping, throwing and combat sports
- people ran around the gymnasium
greek sports as modern accomplishment reconcile ancient testimony…. jumping distances
2 jumps are known to us from ancient sources
this is Phayllus of Croton: won 3 times at pythia games and
pentatholon and one foot race and also fight against perians and took part in the famous battle
ancneint dictionary called Suidas: Phayllus is a pentathelete (look on powerpoint)
ancient greek foot measure was 1 6th hundred of a stadion meaning, FT= 1/600 stadion (delphic
30cm) meaning that Phayllus (55= 16.5m)
each stadia is different measurement.
stadion from pythian game was the measurment used to calculate his measurement.
Chionis= olympic games won the 29th olympiad. (look at powerpoint) 7.04 meters
modern long jump record is 8.95m. thus, Chionis is reasonable. .. so phayllus..wtf?
first place, Greek tehnique jumping was a stnading long jump without the run up
BUT, the jump was a classical period, consisted of 5 jump in a row. thus expalins the 16.5m
but even the modern 5 jump is impossible to reach 16.5 m
its on vase paintings as well. depicts penatheletes. but on each vase, there are different objects
that is drawn on the vase ex. bag, disc, picks
the little semi circles are HALTERES. greek atheltes would hold these objects and prepare to
make their jumps with these semi circle, Halteres
Pausanias expalins 5.26.3: carrying jump weights. not exact but fingers pass through. (look on
they are held like handles. thus, the picture of the people holding the handle is actually holding
it like a handle.
objects were found in arachelogical evidence. its made out of stone, 1-4 kg. vary in weight and
compare with vase, we see that excavated types to correspond in the a vase painting.
on the top right, heavier ones with the handles carved into them and the top left is the lighter
weight holding around the middle
these were jumping weights and when swung during take off, traveling distance increase. so by
swinging the weight, jumpers momentum changes and reach further with their feet.
accelerates bodies when they took off.
over course of 5 jumps, using weights would add a meter. (modern experiement did beat the
greeks were apporaching fild sports today but still ancient mystery of the calculation was solved
with the halteres
bibons record of the training ball, greeks threw different things
but 2 throwing sports that was competitive was the javelin and the discus. these are 2 penthalon sports and object of the thrwoing do always appear in the vases
javelin thrwoing is connection for training for wars -- hoplite using a spear
but athelitc javlin was much lighter and it was used in different technique because its just
thrwoing not stabbing. plus, they were naked when thrwoing… so it goes much further when
7-8 ft long.
some vase painting shows overhand thrwoing motion, but other instances show javelin held
lower down, like a pole vault. there seems to be a slight different techniques.
greek thrwers used a thrwoing strap called ANKYLE (latin, Amentum)*
this was a leather strap. its attached to midpoint of the javelin, and it acted like a sling upon
relase to the javelin throw. and because its wound around the shaft, (spiriling around the javelin)
upon relase, it added spin to the javelin and would increase accurate aim, more stable trajectory
and located where it would spear the ground where it would land.
using the strap increased distances.
this totally made sense in war context as well.
it appears that throwing tehcnque is like todays. ahtelte run up and carried the javelin and
achived far distances thanks to the strap
a stone plate
made of minor materials (metal) but competition and training were stone.
10-12iches diameters. larger than modern discus.
standing positions… the Diskoboulos (statue). some turning was involved.twist of his torso
this would increase energy which tranfered into the disc.
original diskoboulos was made in 5th C, Myron the statue maker.
this particular statue is in Rome, 140AD roman copy.
there were other kind of throws for training.. stone spear was called a SOLOS. it had holes in
cneter for handle or leather strap to go through it. (perhaps hammer throw?)
long jump, sicus, javelin, stadion footrace,
- if you wernet good enough, you would go to penthathlon. to bost your score
Aarisottl'es opinion, Pentatheletes were the best atheletes. (pwoerpint slide)
it was a physical trainig increasing physical health and mainleness and masculinity.
they are naturally adapted for bodily exertion.
excellenece consist of size, strenght, foot.. meaning they are strong
the other element of the penthalon took place to musical accompliment of a flute*
msuiciians played as atheletes did their thing. setting a rhythm.
flute accompnment also was in war as well.
how was it scored?
all round score somehow
Pausanias 3.11.6 explains (slideshow) that in terms of order of event, xenophon tells werestling
came last. suggesting rest of the sports were in the stadion.
exenophone tells us events of pentatholn race course, and wrestling match was in the space
between race horse and alter.
order of event, throw running jumping was in the stadium and wrestling moved into the
wrestling ground in a small venue- open spot with a ring wher ethey would wrestle. score was all round. you needed to win an all around score
it was called PUGNE* (latin, Pugilatus)
regarded as most dagnerous contest* because of its weapon
wore things such as leather band wrapped and tied around their hands and wrists and
sometimes up their rms and elbow
these bans were called HIMANTES (latin, CESTUS)
illiads book 23, funeral games describes boxers.
early days, these bands were leather bands… but light weights were added to them for extra
there are differetn categories…. varying in weight. thinniest was trainig exercises, heaviest called
MYRMEKES (limb breakers) were the competitive use. hence, these were weapons NOT
protected gloves and deaths were not known in the boxing ring.
vases shows wounds because leather heavy straps wouldve just added weight to the punch but
inflicted type of open wounds on the competitiors.
Paudsanias describes 8.40.3-5, Creugus the boxer who died by Damoxenus. (expelled him for
breaking the rules) and thus, statue was made for Creugus in Argos.
number of how a boxing match went on.
what happened in a boxing fight? highly prized without getting any wounds*
idea was to wear opponent out. they didn’t have head protections and these were depicted in
sometimes there were metal ear covers advise for ractising in gyms and used for boys. these ear
covers never appeared in the actual competitions.
rules; fighters can grab nor trip the opponents. just blows.
death was common and death ended the fight. dead man won. deliberabately tried to kill was a
consequence of severe… both tired, they could take a break (depicted on vase paining kneeling
down). if fight was dragging on, umpire set up a KLIMAX* pausanius describes this. figter stand
still and exchnage blows without blocking except holding their hands in read position. this
probably finished off fights. until someone yelied or died. ended because too tired, too
woudned, ackonlweing they were beaten (they would raise up their h