Mar. 20, 2013
sport and Masculinity
man to man engage in sport. picking up few things…. in the end of 5th C. Xen (sldie)descirbes a dialogue
between socrate and his friends. in this case, socartes discuss matter of household management in daily
life. one of the figure socrates speaks about orspeaks to, is Ischomachus, a rich athenian who enjoy well
ordered life and existence. scorates ask his success… and his reply is his daily routine*
get out of bed early…. takes a walk… use trip to the country for a walk…. walk and run the rest at home
and scrape him down. eats breakfast…
his morning routine combination of athelete, equestirna and military training through his management
in coutnry estate or political business or mecherantile plus his diet as well. this makes him not physically
atttractive BUT wealthy and highly regarded by his wealthy peers.
morals and social standingis (Y)
the greeks intereted in the gym as institution not just educate young ppl, and gk culture BUT giving
wealth. benefit of the gym to social status, wealth and political succes.s. underyling concept was healthy
boyd housed healthy personality*** this was the whole package for succesful life and man. both
phyilospher and medical physician asserted many benefits and exercise. ckey to this was that it had to
be well regulated*
ischomachus is living and eating right as well. having everything in balnce** making him admorable
- well regulated life
- boyd&soul : diet, exercise, habits of living
in order to compensate for natural weakness and enhance natural strength. medical text from greek
phsyciina give decription of different type of regimen described by people.
Hippocrates* 5th C BC, he is arguable the most famous greek physician and his name given to group of
medical text called HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS* this doesntm ena he wrote all of this but few dozen which
scholar atrributed by ipp. himsefl but derived from writing in his trainig manual or written by his
followers. he was said tohave medical schoool at island of Cos.
Humoral theory* human physiology, continued as most popular notion of how human body run. thus
the balance of the 4 humors.
-yellow bile (fire hot/dry)= choler (someone who has tempertandrums)
- black bile (earth cold/dry)= melancholic (prone to low points in their emotional life) usually scholars
-* blood (air hot/moist)= sanguine (positive.. cheerful, balanced, happy person) desirable and most
- phlegm (water cold/moist)= phlegmatic (moistuer but cold… stable…boring ppl not great intellect)
4 liquid inside human body and depend on their proportion
(women cold and men hot)
regimen was for men. emphasised towards the male body.
each person depending on hwhere their bodytended, needed different kind of regimen and compensate
for undesirable humor. to make you better person. one of the Hipp. text was attribted to him. (on the diet-- slide)
desribeswhat was suitable for what bodies and types. sine male body generally hot moist end of
specturm, regieme for men generally had to do with balance moisture in the body and encouraging heat.
*n.b. regimee wants to balance humor. tending towards the fire…. manly man.. you want to encourage
inner heat, you do things to heat you up. moisture= encourage moisture or lessen moisture. thus a
sympathetic relationship with foods, elements, and body physiology.
you see comparison of ischomoahcus' personal routine. he did partial run… he did quick sprint in the
field… thus obviously he was feeling that he was this type of person.
(slide…goes on) talking about how to cool down mositure…. and after different types of food and other
aspect of regimes ex. baths. and drinking water. cold and hot baths give certain amount of heat and
moisture. and the effects from it.
oiling warm, moisten and softens…
(blackboard): section where phsyciian tlaks of exercises, different kind of running distance, wrestling….
is interesting. basically
aim of regimen/erxercise:
to restore balance by
- warming up
- drying out
-refining='thinning' made pure* removing impurities from body
- removing air (exercise through music/sing…. clearing the 'tube')
running depends on heats… short distnce do this. do it without body overheating. running in a cloack,
was viewed as good exrcise who needs to retain heat. this was good for losing exces weight and older
man would be wearing a lcoak as well.
long distance run expose to more air that would dry you out more.
swinging your arm (arobic or stretnch) thses needed to be smooth to not cause sprain and skin… the
tone of the skin and muscle on the surface.
boxing give less heat but boxing good for soul and took air out of the body. inscrease breathing and
moving soul and getting rid of air.
wrestlign was good for exterior flesh. tone of the flesh on the outside.
rolling on ground, wrenstlign with himantes… different dteps of physical needs on differetn bodies.
eercising with dust and oil had differetn benefits (oil keeps you warm in winter nad boil in the summer)
dust because it was earth…cools you down. comvering yourself with dust would make you cooler.
for thoes out of shape, phsyciin talks about how you get sore. pain comes because you heated up and
impurity melted out of flesh. they collect and if they are not sweated or breathe… you get cramps. thus, hot bath was helpful to losen impurities in the body. over exercise blmed for causing pain because too
dry or too hot… unbalance*
overexercise= mositen up with good bath and food.
- movement- of breath, of the body
regining nad thining process* through breathing or sweating it out. removing ari* from the body. all this
was achieved by movement. exercise that got you warmed up. it was achieved by different types of
bathes and massage.
those ladder activities were actually helped out by group who were working at the gym
gymnaste- gymnasium director
palaistrophylax- wrestling school director
iatraliptai- physicians of anointing (message and create anointments)
when talking about aoninting with olive oil… this is not religious but when gks talk about it, it’s a full
boyd oil down. activitiy takes place at a spa.
we do have evience for activity of the aliptai and atraliptai. the aliptai ran the baths* of the gym.their
job was to annoit gym patrons when entere to exercise ground. object of the anointing was close up
pores of skin to prevent access sweating and annoting was help increase heat in the body. it cause flesh
to heat and purify. these anointers rubed it in as a pre-exercise treatment. after the exercise routine, the
aliptai check progress of client..after their routine before bath and scrape off the oil.
the work of the aliptai were essnetial*
he talks bout breathing and massage. daily use of voice conduce health and strength. different apporach
where they have to support their muscle and hold breathe as the alipaai rubbed them down.
generally breathing deeply as you are messaged and using bvoice stirs up soul and cleans out blood nad
opens p tube.
there are two ex of gym physciains who are credited by using experience of developing regimee and
ractices useful for atheletic type.
one of ICCUS of TARENTUM* won olympic crown in the mehtathlon and best trainer in his day. a former
pentathelee and when retired, he became a trainer… a wrestling coach. he paid considerable attentio to
diet of the wrestler. no excess* moderate and balance! was a must.
we seen reference how atheltes wrestlers wanted to bulk up. iccus was advocating a spared diet for
wrestler as part of his regieme