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Chapter 4-12

CLA160 chapters 4-12 study guide

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Ephraim Lytle

CHAPTER 4 NOTES THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK CIVILIZATION MINOAN AGE TO ARCHAIC AGEGreeks were never completely united separate statescitizens but had similar customs and languageThe Minoan AgeMajor Palace at Knossos discovered by Arthur Evans Most of our understanding of Cretan society depends on our interpretations of the functions of the palaceso Kings probably lived in the palaces o They were complicated structures o They regulated activities o Size and wealth of the palaces indicates that overseas trade took placeo Find mostly the remains of elite life women were prominent in religious and social lifeCretans had a form of pictographic writing and also Linear A o Used fro recording palace transactions and inventorieso Most writing perished because done on clay skin and barkConquered by the Mycenaeans from mainland GreeceThe Mycenaean Age Mycenaean elite took over the Minoan palaces Introduced Linear B which we can read Lasted for 45 centuries Phases of the Mycenaean Ageo 1 Shaft Grave Era 16001500 BC the contents of graves suggest a warlike society with foreign contact influence of Minoan civilization is apparento 2 Beehivelike tholos vaulted tombs under mounds of Earth show growing power and technical ability o 3 The period of the Palaces there were administrative centers to control the commercial industrial and agricultural activities The centergreat hall was called the megaron There was a network of roads Landownersdamos The head was a king called the wanax who was assisted by officials Religion had an integral role in the organization of palace activitiesthey had altars and the Olympian deities were represented in Linear B tablets End of Mycenaean Civilization All Mycenaean palaces were attacked and burned all high arts of civilization were lost How this happened is still a mysteryeither invaders or climate change There was also similar destruction and disturbances in the rest of the Mediterranean There were strained and unsettled conditions during this time The Dark Ages The epics of Homer were composed in the Dark Ages 700 BC o Memories of the past survived in the songs of bards bardic traditiono Heroic poetry was common in many cultures o But the heroic poems of Homer are particularly sophisticated and complex o Upper class women in heroic poetry are different from their invisible counterparts of later times women in epics are clearly valued although still manipulated and there was a double standardTheir social system was made of chieftains and different communities strategic marriage and athletic competitionsThe Archaic Age Greeks traded with the Phoenicians who were rich through the Aegeano Traded grain metal lumber slaves ideas and technology There were good lines of communication and accessibility1 The population increased so Greeks left and migrated to areas of the Black Sea Sicilyo But they wanted to maintain their culture and resist assimilation Military superiority greatly ensured success of colonizationo Hoplite warfare new style of infantry fighting that used heavily armed bands of soldiers in massed units called phalanxes individuala hoplite o Helped maintain superiority over the natives With all of this growth and development the old order shatteredo People started to gain huge fortuneso Radically new ideas because of migrationthey began to see injustices and excesss o Responded to the crisis of the old order by creating the polis citystateo Agoramarketplace People started to see themselves as citizens and began to see the authority of kings as inadequate o The community was sovereign no one was above the lawo Rise in the selfconsciousness and exclusivity of citizens o The kings and aristocracy were not allpowerful People fighting in the war began to demand a share in political powero They stopped burying warriors with their arms when hoplite warfare developed pass ono War was justified as a community act not for individuals glory called the democratization of warThe absence of any major rival power allowed for all of these developments There was a decline in the visibility of upperclass womeno Assembly consisted of the men of the communityo Women could only influence affairs through the husbands Narrowing definition of who belonged in the communityo Sense of us and themo Need citizenship of both parents to be Atheniano Benefits of polis membershipo Extreme exclusion occurred in Spartao Citizenship in a way became the new aristocracy However there were also oligarchic types of poleis instead of democratic Sparta Slaves called helots belonged to the state o Needed helots so they could be free during waro Helots often revolted when Spartans were away Endless athletic and military exercisesChildren raised by the state from age 7 Spartan women could own property and marry whoever they wanted 2 hereditary kings provided military leadership along with 28 elected men ages 60 called gerousiaEphors5 annually elected magistratesSpartan phalanx was unbeatable Because of their focus on the military their highculture suffered Called themselves the Equals Homoioi they valued the group Athens Had an assembly of males an aristocratic council and elected magistrates In 594 BC Solon established wealth rather than birth as the basis of officeholding Solons reforms o Also abolished economic obligations to aristocracyo Made the assembly a court of appeal in certain cases In 561 BC Peisistratus seized power and became tyrant but a popular strongman not ruthless dictator o Ruled until 528 BC continued under son Hippiaso Athenian aristocracy was weakened by the reforms and the tyranny but it returned Cleisthenes appealed to the people made the demos his faction2
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