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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Edo Japan.docx

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East Asian Studies
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Chapter17EdoJapan(1603-1800) Tokugawa Settlement (17 century) - Most villages had at least one dominant family, often descended from a rusticated 過鄉 間生活 warrior, which monopolized the position of headman - Honbyakusho households family members, house servants, and field workers - Across Japan, social, economic, and political inequality structured village life - Shogun had the largest domain concentrated chiefly in eastern and central Japan totaling appro. One-fourth of the total agricultural base - Vassal daimyo 大名(日本封建時代的大領主) (fudai) were hereditary retainers governed domains, served as the shogun’s chief advisers and his first line of defense against potential foes Government - Tokugawa shoguns developed an elaborate bureaucratic structure bakufu 幕府 - Senior councilors took responsibility for policy decisions, personnel matters, and supervising the daimyo - Their assistants, also vassal daimyo, handled matters relating to the shogun’s retainers - The hatamoto 旗本 staffed the administrative positions, beginning with the magistrates in charge of finances, cities, and temples and shrines - The shogunal and domainal governments developed the most complex, sophisticated and coherent bureaucracies Japan had ever seen - The daimyo were not to harbor criminals, collude against the shogun, or marry without the shogun’s permission - Samkin kotai this system stipulated that each daimyo spend half of his time in his domain and half in the shogun’s capital at Edo  Each Daimyo’s wife and heir had to reside in Edo as hostages Designed to keep the daimyo both loyal to the shogun and effective in local administration  Had the inadvertent consequence of stimulating trade, encouraging travel, and fostering cultural exchange - Tokugawa Shogunate success because the transformation power into authority Agricultural Transformation and the Commercial Revolution - Large and small-scale reclamation projects, often funded by merchants at a daimyo’s behest, opened rice paddies and expanded land - River were diked and new channels dug to bring irrigation water to fields - The introduction of better seeds and new crops intensified the use of land and labor - Developed rice varieties suited for specific local conditions th - Tokugawa period, 17 century agronomy experts traveled Japan building social networks of like-minded experimenters, seeking the most advanced methods for increasing crop yields, and disseminating their findings in books - Cultivators also grew cash crops and developed products based on Chinese technology - 17 century, Japan imported Chinese silk and sugar. Later Japan provided substitutes - Export to fund their mandated trips to Edo hired teachers to show cultivators how to harvest lacquer, make paper… - But population of Japan was still stagnant - One characteristic of Early modern Japan’s growth—while labor remained in the countryside, capital largely concentrated in cities Urban Life and Culture - Shogunate built canals to provide transportation for goods and people - Ruling class took highlands for itself, leaving the lowlands for commoners -
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