Textbook Notes (362,815)
Canada (158,059)
EAS105H1 (15)
all (10)
Chapter 24

Chapter 24 Remaking China.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
East Asian Studies

Chapter24RemakingChina(1900-1927) Local Activism 激進主義 - Local elites set up new schools - Interest in Western forms of government was growing as people asked how European powers and Japan had gained wealth and power The Anti-Manchu Revolutionary Movement - Sun Yatsen (Sun Zhongshan)  Came from Guangdong  Went to Hong Kong to study Western medicine, completing his degree  In HK, he and his friends began discussing the advantages of republic  The best way to overthrow the Manchus, they concluded, would be to ally with the secret societies so pervasive in south China.  E.g Triads  Sun set up the first two chapters of the Revive China Society in Hawaii and Hong Kong  He also but off his queue and began wearing Western clothes in 1896  Began to think that China would skip ahead of the West by going directly to a more progressive form of government  Worked out his theory of the Three People’s Principles 1. Nationalism (which opposed both rule by Manchus and domination by foreign powers) 2. Democracy (which to Sun meant elections, and a constitution) 3. The “people’s livelihood” (vague sort of socialism with equalization of landholdings and curbs on capital) The Manchu Reform Movement - New military academies were set up and new armies formed, trained by German or Japanese instructors - Yuan Shikai emerged as the most powerful general, serving as both commander or the Northern Army and head of the Baoding Military Academy in 1901 - Soon Cixi’s three years old succeed her, and wasn’t a effect leaders and dismissed Yuan Shikai The 1911 Revolution - October 1911 a plot by revolutionaries finally triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty - In the city of Wuchang, a bomb accidentally exploded in the headquarters of a revolutionary group and lists of revolutionaries came out. - Police set out to arrest and finally revolutionaries asked other provinces to declare their independence - The Qing court didn’t immediately capitulate. In desperation it turned to Yuan Shikai - In the end, agreement reached to establish a republic with Yuan as president; the emperor would abdicate, but he and his entourage would be allowed to remain in the Forbidden City, receive generous allowances, and keep much of their property The Presidency of Yuan Shikai and the Emergence of the Warlords - While governor, he had initiated reforms in education, commerce, and industry, and his army not only was equipped with modern weapons but also was trained along lines established by German and Japanese advisers - By Summer the Nationalist party was organizing open revolt against Yuan, and seven provincial governments declared their independence - Yuan did undertake some progressive projects, extending elementary education, suppressing opium cultivation, and promoting judicial reform - But he was out of touch with the mood of younger people, especially when he announced that Confucianism would be made the state religion - After he dies, China was politically fragmented. - Without a central strongman, gangsters build their own power bases, etc - Tibet and Mongolia declared their independence - Sun Yatsen and his allies tried to build a power base for the Nationalist revolutionaries Toward a More modern China The New Culture Movement - Young people who received a modern education felt that they had inherited the obligation of the literati to advise those in power - Chen Duxiu received a traditional education and had taken the civil service examinations before studying in Japan and France  Participant in the 1911 revolution, he became a zealous ad
More Less

Related notes for EAS105H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.