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Chapter 25

Chapter 25 War and Revolution.docx

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East Asian Studies
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Chapter25War andRevolution,China(1927-1949) The Chinese Communist Party - 13 delegates met in July 1921 to form the Chinese Communist party as a secret, exclusive, and centralized party - The party broke with the anarchists and guild socialists and asserted the primacy of class struggle - On March 32,as the Nationalist army neared Shanghai, the Communist-led General Labor Union called for general strike  Over six hundred thousand workers responded and seized the city  By 1927, Soviet advisers had withdrawn from the Nationalist army, and the United Front was over  Party membership, which had reached about sixty thousand in April 1927, plummeted to fewer than ten thousand within the year Mao Zengdong’s Emergence as a Party Leader - Mao Zengdong  Joined student demonstrations against the Qing government and cut off his queue in 1911  His teacher who had the greatest impact—Yang Changji—got Mao a job as a clerk in the library at Beijing University, which made him a subordinate of Li Dazhao  It was not until 1920, he showed particular interest in Marxism  In July 1921 first meeting of the Community party, he was delegate and appointed to build up the party in Hunan and develop ties to labor unions  In early 1923, he joined Nationalist party  In Feb 1927, Mao submitted a highly positive report to the Communist party on the revolution among the peasants in Hunan  In the mountain area that Mao’s forces controlled, he pushed through an extreme form of land reform, redistributing all the land of the rich and requiring all the physically able to work  Lstudet of rural life in Xunwu County to learn more about how a party could be build on a peasant base The Nationalist Government in Nanjing - 1928, the Nationalists gained the allegiance of 3 key warlords to reunite the country - Established its capital at Nanjing - Men who had studied in Western countries were appointed to many key government posts, and progressive policies were adopted, such as a new land law limiting rents, allowing women to initiate divorce, etc - Foreign concessions were reduced from 33 to 13, and extraterritoriality was eliminated for some minor countries - Chiang Kaishek  Leader of Nationalists  Being a head of Whangpoa Academy allows him to form strong personal ties to young offices in the party’s army  To modernize his army, he turned to Germany, attracted by the success the Nazis were having in mobilizing and militarizing Germany  Then German advisers helped his train an elite corps, plan the campaigns against the communist base in Jiangxi, and import German arms  He entrusted political training in the army and schools to Blue Shirts  In 1934, he launched an ideological indoctrination program, the New Life Movement, to combat the intellectual appeal of the communists and build support for his govn’t  But Nationalists’ modernizing programs failed to bring improvements to the countryside Shanghai—one of the major cities of the world - Attracted Chinese entrepreneurs, especially those willing to collaborate with foreigners - Had China’s largest port and was the commercial center of China - Became a magnet for international refugees - Shanghai also attracted Chinese intellectuals, especially Nationalist censorship got more severe Relocating the Communist Revolution - Mao gave up Jiangxi Soviet about 86000 Communist solders, followers started a year- long Long March in search of new place to set up a base
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