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Chapter 4

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR100H1
Professor
Jason Hackworth
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4 Overview: -South American cities boast nice vistas of natural landscape, colonial architecture, cosmopolitan populations, charming market streets, modern skylines in cities like Caracas, Rio, Buenos, Lima, Santiago; but also conversely evoke images of squatter settlements, intractable poverty, random violence, hapless street children, congested motorways, bad air and polluted waters. -Since the colonial era, cities throughout this region have served as important global producers and consumers -today, south American cities vigorously compete for financial, manufacturing and service oriented multinational enterprises -various factors account for continental-specific characteristics: Iberian urbanism, similar historic plans of economic development, recent globalization of cultural tastes, production and technology, socioeconomic polarization, spatial segregation and informal economies. -differences: some cities originated with Spanish conquest, while others came from Portuguese colonization. Indigenous cultures, European immigration from Germany and Italy, and African-like cultures which are brought about in slave tade. Urban Patterns: -three culturals-ecological regions: 1) andean America (Columbia, Venezuela, ecudaor, peru) 2) southern cone (chile, argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay) 3) portugeuse America (brazil). Grouping of Cities Andrean America: -more indigenous presence than other 2 regions -these cities are divided by ethnicity, as large indigenous and mixed populations share urban space with elites from Europe -rapidly growing cities are dominated by alternative economy, of the informal sector, and popular markets. -currently is the fastest urbanizing region, and operates under fiscal constraint and hence experiencing social, political, infrastructural crises. Opposely, Bogota has become world renowed from innovative urban planning, mass transit and sustainability programs Southern Cone: -heavy European ethnic heritage and urban tradtions besides Paraguay -HDI indicators suggest prosperity, these cities are amidst long standing problems of economic stagnation and a restive middle class -paraguay is like Andean countries with strong indigenous presence and socioeco problems -urbanization rates peaked long ago -buenos aires, Santiago de chile and monteviedo now grow at a slow rate compared to cities of brail and Andean America. Brazilian cities: -portugeuse flare and colonial heritage and language, unique pop culture and urban forms from Hispanic counterpart -black-white stratification is a key urban issue -3/4 urbanized -sao paolo is largest megacity is western hemisphere and third in the world -highest rates of urbanization are in smaller and intermediate cities Pre Colonial: -inca and macho pichu, monumental stone beauty -amazon and Andean regions unite -large sedentary communities were across the amazon region Colonial development: Spanish cities: -spanish and portugeuse established settlemnts to explot and administer new territoires in south America. -spanish and portugeuse had different terms to proper site selection, general morphological (land shape) and geopolitical (oil etc). -both however wanted urban primacy, that persisted till now (Iberian legacies) -iberian legacies reflect the cultural and religious landscapes of cities such as roman catholic cathedrals and parish churches in central cities and residential neighborhoods. -dramatic fall of inca empire provided rich source of labor, silver and gold -spain extended its initial conquest with more expidtions and founded towns in the coast and highlands area. Port cities such as Callao, Buenos aires and cartegna linked new colnies to spansih homeland. -concentrated indigenous populations and created villages out of tem and rebuilt inca capital of cuzco. -didn’t plan earliest settlements but generally new towns adhered to standards by Iberian code -grid pattern in city streets -spanish cities have a right angle gridiron around central plaza. -they had important institutions like roman catholic church. -houses rioght in core of city with “defensive architecture” Portegueuse cities: -less alluring than spains empire -smaller and less carefully planned cities and towns -other than sao paolo, all towns were located on the coast and were administrative centeres and military strongholds, ports and entrepots, residential and religious centres. -feudal and capitalism -salvadore had 100,000 people and was most important portegueuse colonized city and began th sugarcane cultivation on coastal plantatations, which were very profitable and important African slaves for labor. -irregular mazes of streets because of weird topography – along waterfronts -early towns on defensive hilltop sites -spanish cities were on grid patter -class-segregated neighborhoods emerged -elite mansions for rural aristocracy, and slave districts set apart by urban merchant classes between rich and poor Historical urban devel
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