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GGRA03 Ch-4.docx

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Andre Sorensen

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Ch-4 contemporary urbanization and env dynamics 3 urban revolutions: 1. Independently experienced in Asia, Africa and America – new way of living in world 2. Began in 18 century – linkage between urbanization and industrialization, high rate of urban growth and environmental transformation 3. Began in middle of 20 century – massive increase in urban population, development of megacities, growth of giant metropolitan cities, global redistribution – former manufacturing sites declined and moved elsewhere Urban dynamics: - World has become increasingly urban, major demographic and social shifts, consequences for environmental quality - Urbanization occurring rapidly, ¾ of growth occurs in urban areas of developing countries - Large scale development projects funded to create urban infrastructure for industrial economy, focused in cities – water and sanitation systems, electrical systems, building of roads, factories and warehouses, port facilities, government buildings (courthouses, parliaments) – all of this focused in urban. In rural – dams and large highways - Cities considered better place to live in compared to rural, due to job, water, electricity, sanitary services, housings, schools, health services, etc. - 2 trend – cities continued to grow larger, now even more than 13 cities with population more than 1 million and 35 more than 5 million. Major shift in geography in 1950’s north American cities larger – now Asian, south - 3 trend – creation of giant urban regions and megacities, are now new building blocks of both national and global economies, control and command functions, heavy concentration of producer services like banking, advertising, business, multinational corporation offices, etc. Rise of megacities – with more than 10 million pop Urban region and megacities: - Megapolis Washington responsible for 20% GDP, continues to remain significant center for nation’s population. Environmental impact – more people driving cars, flushing toilets, showers, bigger houses o Automobiles: in same surface area, number of cars quadrupled, autos releasing exhaust, needing roads and requiring parking spaces o Water usage: increased 500 gallons per day in 45yrs, daily withdrawal increased by 50% per head, posing threat to natural streams o Waste generation: produce 1000 tones of garbage waste per day, trash is collected into trucks to transfer stations in city, then transport for incineration, dumping in landfills, truck journey’s have increased congestion, raised pollution levels also such routes - Megalopolis is one giant waste-generating, waste-disposal region - Megacities: cities with population at least 10 million – impose heavy environment toll, magnet for people, organizations, economics, social and economic dynamics, new distinctive spatial form of social organization, economic production and political governance - Direct and indirect environmental impacts: o Direct: megacities are large, so volume of pollutants is high, land-use conflicts in coastal areas such as coastal erosion, salt water erosion and freshwater storage, depletion of fish resources, release of semi- treated/untreated waste into coastal water – degrading beach, impacting tourism o Air pollution: motor vehicle traffic, emission from power generation, high levels of sulfur problem stem from use of coal as major energy use o Consume vast resources, quantities of water dangerously depleting groundwater supplies, urban flooding problem damage to buildings and infrastructure. o Positive about megacity: emission restrictions in some places like Brazil – alcohol fueled vehicles Indirect: cities enlarge consuming agriculture land, forest and wetlands to provide housing need. In Bangladesh, land above flood plain highly rich for agriculture but being converted into urban uses, right and left – danger of flood due to big rivers - Smaller cities degradation even more severe – highly population cities choking on their industrial air pollution, serious groundwater pollution by heavy metals, unregulated mining and smelting operations poisoned soil and water sources. Common lead contamination problem due to recycling battery - Either megacities becomes really good and improve to live in or will get worse to even survive. Postindustrial cities: Wake up of deindustrialization – lead the industries to move out of urban cities, saving environment, production of post-industrial landscapes and cleaning up of toxic sites - Seen as industrial is now associated with old, polluted and out-of-date - New rather than old, fashionable than merely modern, postindustrial rather than industrial, consumption rather than production, spectacle and fun, rather than pollution and work Waterfront development: - Process of de-industrialization left many cities with abandoned warehouses and buildings, unused port facilities on their waterfronts - US, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, etc transformed these waterfront places into spaces that attract locals and tourists. After renovations, harbor fronts became congenial place for leisure consumption rather than for production and storage. - Costs – economic and social: poor school system, d
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