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Canada (162,367)
Geography (186)
GGR107H1 (52)
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5.2.pdf

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Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR107H1
Professor
Charles Z Levkoe

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5.2 5.2 Pests and Pollinators Throughout history there have been pests, insects, and weeds that invade agriculture These organisms effect the yield of crops Ex. Moth caterpillars decrease yield of canola Pest: ay organism that damages crops that are valuable to us The organism is trying to survive and reproduce Weighing the issue 5.3: What a Pest! Compare the concept of a pest to invasive species 5.2.1 Many thousands of chemical pesticides have been destroyed Insecticides: chemicals that kill insects Herbicides: chemicals that kill plants Fungicides: chemicals that kill fungi Pesticides: poisons that target pest organisms In Canada there are more than 7000 pesticides used Pest Control Products Act: requires products to be evaluated to insure minimum use More than $32 billion is spent on pesticides annually, Canada spends 1.5 billion Pesticides may be toxic to humans and other organisms 5.2.2 Pests evolve resistance to pesticides Pests will eventually evolve resistance to the chemicals Even if only a few are able to evolve, they can pass their genes on Industrial chemists are caught up in an “evolutionary arms race”where they must continue to develop stronger chemicals 5.2.3 Biological control pits one organism against another Biological control/biocontrol: operate on “the enemy of one’s enemy is one’s friend” Ex. Parasitoids wasps are natural enemies and can be used to control caterpillars One of the rare biological controls involves the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum was used to control the prickly pear cactus Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt): naturally occurring soil bacterium Kill caterpillars and the larvae 5.2.4 Biological control agents themselves Biological control involves introducing animals that are foreign to the region or continent Scientists debate the relative benefits an
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