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GGR124H1 (11)

key study terms from readings and lectures

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University of Toronto St. George
Deborah Cowen

Study Terms Postindustrial Urbanism • Deindustrialization and the movement of production • New economy and precarious work • Postindustrial urban landscape • Steel belt [traditional industrial heartland and was the core of the US economy] to the rustbelt [massive job losses as production moved offshore and west] Curitiba, Brazil • Brought out importance of putting land use and transport together • Colour coded the buses to make it easier for elders, tourists and children to ride the transit • Integrated outer city and inner city buses together • Buses had their own lanes which allowed them to be more efficient and faster • Accessible to everyone; colour coded and easy for wheelchair people to board them; faster because you paid before you boarded Skytrain • Vancouver public transit • Securitization of urban space? • Armed bus drivers • Urban securitization • First city in north America to have an armed transit force • Raises questions about the effects of security; sometimes it creates more anxiety for the things it is trying to solve ‘Monster Homes’ • Associated with the new class of business immigrants who came in the 80’s and 90’s • Large size homes with garden space converted into indoor space and are very aesthetically appealing • Upset popular stereotypes of poor immigrants • Complaints by local residents • In Surrey, BC, council decided to limit the size of homes and some complained that it wasn’t fair and the bylaw had racial overtones Physical Restructuring • Rapid growth of world city populations fueled by international immigration and domestic migration • Physical growth of cities; large sizes • Gentrification of formerly industrial areas, downtowns, and waterfronts, and displacement of poorer populations to the declining inner suburbs Restrictive Covenants • Used to protect land from particular users or uses • Protect land from heavy industry and environmental destroyers • Arose when it became illegal for certain municipalities to zone race because cities and towns used zoning to restrict black people from certain neighbourhoods • Would tell owners what would and wouldn’t happen on the land ‘Ghetto’ • Inhabited by a minority group • Spatially concentrated area where ethnicity is combined with class • Residents are excluded from the mainstream of economic life Push and Pull factors Points System • Judges immigrants on qualifications such as language and skills • Attempts to remove explicit discrimination and prejudice • Shifts patterns of immigration from Europe to Asia Infrastructure • Physical and social • Infrastructure in relation to the automobile/space and how infrastructure is created around the automobile • Social infrastructure and how it has changed urban governance • Benefits of social infrastructure like hospitals, YMCA, etc Precarious Employment • Associated with post-industrial urbanism • Rise of the new service-based economy [serving people instead of making stuff] • Poor benefits, low wages, high health risks, non unionized, usually part-time, shift-work and temporary, radicalized, gendered and often stigmatized and often done by immigrants • 7th Ward • W.E.B. Dubios • 7 ward of Philly as a city within a city • Complex social structure • He saw that the area had high levels of slavery which resulted in little or no education for the people [key challenge] ‘McJob’ • Expansion of temporary and part-time work, low-wage service work • - The racialization and gendering of precarious work • Particularly in global cities Economic Globalization • Growth of transnational corporations • Changes in the division of labour • Increased mobility of capital • Changing communications and transportation technologies Inner Suburb • Are becoming sites of racialized poverty • Downtown gentrifies and poverty goes to the inner suburbs • Trouble getting around; more revolved around the car Poverty by Postal Code • Study of the geographic concentration of family poverty in the City of Toronto • Most 'poor' families in Toronto lived in mixed-income neighbourhoods 20 years ago • Today, they are concentrated in neighbourhoods with high levels of poverty W.E.B. Dubois • Studied Philadelphia and described the 7 ward as a city within a city • Insisted that understanding this highly segregated community required looking beyond the community to the broader physical and social environment of the city Redlining • Divided the city into gour parts [grades] and banks refused to provide financing to those in the redlined areas • Was made possible by a particular kind of collaboration between banks and the US government • To get out of the depression, the US built houses and buildings for jobs • Federal Housing Administration helped people buy homes • Banks refused to provide mortgages to properties within red- lined area; you saw a lot of neighbourhoods go into decline and redlining soon became illegal • De-investment as a result and then we saw subprime lending- banks provided mortgages to properties within designated areas with outrageously high rates, often with hidden fees; this resulted in a lot of
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